Hooded Warbler
(Setophaga citrina)


Picture of bird
© Dan Busby
For additional photos and vocalizations, visit Dendroica. (Link opens in a new window.)

The small Hooded Warbler population in Canada breeds in thickly under-storied, mature hardwood forests in southern Ontario. The Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario indicates a large increase in occurrence in Ontario between 1981/85 and 2001/05. In 2012, the species was re-assessed by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada and down-listed from Threatened to Not At Risk based on substantial range and population increases (COSEWIC 2012c). The Hooded Warbler was removed from the Species at Risk Act in 2017. This species has been identified as a priority for conservation and/or stewardship in one or more Bird Conservation Region Strategies in Canada.


Main designations for the species
DesignationStatusDateSubspecies, population
IUCN (Global)Least concern2018 
Wild Species (Canada)Apparently secure2015 
Bird Conservation Region StrategyPriority Species2013 

Population status

Geographic area or populationPopulation change relative to ~1970ReliabilityStatus in relation to goal
CanadaLarge IncreaseLowAt an Acceptable Level

Population estimate

Geographic area or populationPopulation estimate
Canada< 1,000 adults

Distribution maps


Migration strategy, occurrence

Long-distance migrant

Responsibility for conservation

Geographic areaResponsibility based on % of global population
CanadaVery Low

General nesting period in Canada

Nesting period starts in late May and ends in early August, depending on the region. Before or after this period, the probability of an active nest is lower.

Conservation and management

Though still uncommon, the Hooded Warbler appears to be increasing in its Canadian range in southern Ontario. The reasons for the increase are not clear, but may be related to the regrowth of forest occurring in much of eastern North America or to changing climatic conditions (COSEWIC 2012c). Because the Hooded Warbler prefers nesting in small, densely vegetated clearings located within large stands of close-canopied forest, conservation of extensive tracts of mature, sustainably managed hardwood forest is critical for the continued occurrence of the species, as well as many others in Canada (COSEWIC 2012c, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources 2011).


Bird conservation region strategies

Environment and Climate Change Canada and partners have developed Bird Conservation Region Strategies in each of Canada’s Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs). In these strategies, selected species are identified as priorities for one or more of the following reasons:

  • conservation concerns (i.e., species vulnerable due to population size, distribution, population trend, abundance, or threats)
  • stewardship responsibilities (i.e., species that typify the regional avifauna or have a large proportion of their range or population in the sub-region)
  • management concerns (i.e., species that require ongoing management because of their socio-economic importance as game species, or because of their impacts on other species or habitats)
  • other concerns (i.e., species deemed a priority by regional experts for other reasons than those listed above or because they are listed as species at risk or concern at the provincial level)

Select any of the sub-regions below to view the BCR strategy for additional details.

BCRs, marine biogeographic units, and sub-regions in which the species is listed as a priority
RegionSub-region and priority type
Lower Great Lakes/St. Lawrence PlainLower Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Plain, sub-region and priority type: Ontario -- Conservation