Dark-eyed Junco
(Junco hyemalis)


Picture of bird
© Jukka Jantunen (flickr.com/photos/jukka_jantunen)
For additional photos and vocalizations, visit Dendroica. (Link opens in a new window.)

The Dark-eyed Junco is an abundant and widespread species of Canada's wooded habitats. Dubbed a systematist's "nightmare", the species currently contains several recognizable groups, each with their own subspecies. Prior to 1973, the species was split into five distinct species (Nolan et al. 2002). Results from the Breeding Bird Survey indicate that the population in Canada has shown a moderate decrease since about 1970.


Listing of the main designations for the species
DesignationStatusDateSubspecies, population
IUCN (Global)Least Concern2012 
Wild Species (Canada)Secure2010 

Population status

Geographic areaStatusReliability
CanadaModerate DecreaseMedium

Population estimate

Canada> 50,000,000 adults

Distribution maps


Migration strategy, occurrence

Short-distance migrant

Responsibility for conservation of world population


Conservation and management

The Dark-eyed Juno remains very abundant across all regions within its range. It uses a wide range of habitats dispersed over much of North America and plays a significant role as a research subject in many fields of ornithology (Nolan et al. 2002). Currently, there are few known conservation concerns for the species, though causes for the population decline are unclear.


Bird conservation region strategies

Environment and Climate Change Canada and partners have developed Bird Conservation Region Strategies in each of Canada’s Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs). In these strategies, selected species are identified as priorities for one or more of the following reasons:

  • conservation concerns (i.e., species vulnerable due to population size, distribution, population trend, abundance, or threats)
  • stewardship responsibilities (i.e., species that typify the regional avifauna or have a large proportion of their range or population in the sub-region)
  • management concerns (i.e., species that require ongoing management because of their socio-economic importance as game species, or because of their impacts on other species or habitats)
  • other concerns (i.e., species deemed a priority by regional experts for other reasons than those listed above or because they are listed as species at risk or concern at the provincial level)

Select any of the sub-regions below to view the BCR strategy for additional details.

BCRs, marine biogeographic units, and sub-regions in which the species is listed as a priority
RegionSub-region and priority type