Species Profile

Pugnose Minnow

Scientific Name: Opsopoeodus emiliae
Taxonomy Group: Fishes
COSEWIC Range: Ontario
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: May 2012
COSEWIC Status: Threatened
COSEWIC Status Criteria: B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii)
COSEWIC Reason for Designation: This fish is a small-bodied species with a restricted and declining distribution that inhabits river, stream and lake habitats. The species is threatened by habitat loss, habitat degradation from nutrient and sediment loading, climate change and several exotic species. The overall level of threat has been assessed as high.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Special Concern in April 1985. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2000. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in May 2012.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Threatened
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2003-06-05

Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.

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Quick Links: | Photo | Description | Distribution and Population | Habitat | Biology | Threats | Protection | Recovery Team | National Recovery Program | Documents

Image of Pugnose Minnow

Pugnose Minnow Photo 1

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Description

The Pugnose Minnow is a small fish (35 to 57 mm long) with a forked tail and short pectoral fins. It has a rounded snout and a small upturned mouth. It is silver in color, with a black midlateral band which extends from the tail to the snout. The dorsal fin of adult males is dusky or black with a white bar in the middle. This colour pattern (used for identifying the species) intensifies during the spawning season. Breeding males have a dark silver-blue body and white tips on their anal and pelvic fins. They develop small white knobs on the first three dorsal fin rays and patches of small tubercles on the snout and chin.

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Distribution and Population

Most of the range of the Pugnose Minnow is in the eastern United States, from Florida west to Texas and north to Wisconsin. In Canada, it is at the northern edge of its range and is restricted to a small area in southwestern Ontario. The size of the Canadian population is unknown, and existing information is insufficient to determine any population trend, however, data suggest that numbers are relatively low but the species is maintaining itself in most of its Canadian range.

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Habitat

In Canada, Pugnose Minnows prefer clear, slow-moving rivers, lakes and stream with abundant aquatic vegetation, but are not necessarily excluded form more turbid waters. Some minnows have been recorded in water bodies with moderately clear to very silty water with substrates of clay, silt or mud, moderate to abundant vegetation, and little or no current. One specimen was even found in turbid water devoid of vegetation.

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Biology

Little is known about the biology of the Pugnose Minnow. Adults are generally 35 to 57 mm long, with a maximum length of 64 mm. The fish have a lifespan of about three years. They probably spawn in late spring or early summer and have a complex spawning behaviour. Males select a flat surface, such as the underside of a rock, for their spawning site and defend a small territory. Males go through elaborate behavioural displays to attract females to their nests. Females are led to the spawning site by the males. The female repeatedly touches the spawning surface with her mouth and snout. The male follows and nudges her. The small white knobs that develop on the dorsal fins of breeding males may act as egg mimics to stimulate the female to spawn. The spawning pair aligns laterally and repeatedly invert for a brief moment at a time. Eggs (about 1.3 mm diameter) are laid singly or in strings of 2 to 5 in a single layer on the underside of a flat surface. Up to 120 eggs can be laid during a spawning session, and sessions are repeated over 6 to 7 days. Males defend the nest and eggs from potential predators. Eggs hatch in about 6 days, but the time depends on water temperature. Newly hatched fry are 5.0 to 5.5 mm long. Pugnose Minnows feed mainly on insects, but they also eat some algae (likely by accident), aquatic crustaceans (like copepods), fish eggs and fish fry.

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Threats

Pugnose Minnow may be limited by siltation or water turbidity and removal of aquatic plants, conditions which are prevalent throughout its Canadian range. Although the species can occur in turbid environments, these are believed to be marginal habitats. The siltation of rivers and streams, caused by urbanization and agricultural practices, is believed to be the main reason for the small size of Pugnose Minnow populations in Canada. Wetlands that provide ideal habitat for Pugnose Minnows have been steadily declining in the species' range.

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Protection

Federal Protection

The Pugnose Minnow is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

The federal Fisheries Act prohibits destruction of fish habitat.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.

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Recovery Team

Essex-Erie Recovery Team

  • Shawn Staton - Chair/Contact - Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    Phone: 905-336-4864  Fax: 905-336-6437  Send Email

Ontario Freshwater Fish Recovery Team

  • Amy Boyko - Chair/Contact - Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    Phone: 905-336-6236  Fax: 905-336-6437  Send Email
  • Shawn Staton - Chair/Contact - Fisheries and Oceans Canada
    Phone: 905-336-4864  Fax: 905-336-6437  Send Email

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Documents

PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

47 record(s) found.

COSEWIC Status Reports

  • COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Pugnose Minnow Opsopoeodus emiliae in Canada (2013-01-03)

    The Pugnose Minnow is a small (maximum total length is 64 millimetres) member of the family Cyprinidae that has a small upturned mouth, a black lateral band extending from the tail to the snout, and a criss-cross pattern of scaling particularly evident on the upper body. The dorsal fin of adult males is dusky or black with a white bar in the middle, a pattern of pigmentation that intensifies during the spawning season. Unlike any other Canadian minnow, it usually has nine principal dorsal rays. The spawning male develops patches of small tubercles on the snout, lips, and chin.

Response Statements

  • Response Statement - Pugnose Minnow (2013-01-03)

    This fish is a small-bodied species with a restricted and declining distribution that inhabits river, stream and lake habitats. The species is threatened by habitat loss, habitat degradation from nutrient and sediment loading, climate change and several exotic species. The overall level of threat has been assessed as high.

Recovery Strategies

  • Recovery strategy and action plan for Pugnose Minnow (Opsopoeodus emiliae) in Canada (2021-01-20)

    Pugnose Minnow was listed as a species of special concern under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) in 2003. In 2012, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) re-assessed the species as threatened. Pugnose Minnow was reclassified as threatened on Schedule 1 SARA in 2019. This recovery strategy and action plan is considered one in a series of documents for this species that are linked and should be taken into consideration together, including the COSEWIC status report (COSEWIC 2012) and the recovery potential assessment (DFO 2012). Recovery has been determined to be biologically and technically feasible.

Management Plans

  • Management Plan for the Blackstripe Topminnow, Pugnose Minnow, Spotted Sucker and Warmouth in Canada (2009-10-19)

    In Canada, the Blackstripe Topminnow (Fundulus notatus), Pugnose Minnow (Opsopoeodus emiliae), Spotted Sucker (Minytrema melanops) and Warmouth (Lepomis gulosus) all occur in southwestern Ontario.  The Blackstripe Topminnow is found only in the Sydenham River and Lake St. Clair drainages and the Warmouth is found only in four areas of Lake Erie (Long Point Bay, Big Creek National Wildlife Area [Long Point region], Rondeau Bay and Point Pelee National Park). The Pugnose Minnow and Spotted Sucker are found in Lake St. Clair and its smaller tributaries, Lake Erie, the Detroit River, the Sydenham River and the Thames River. In addition, the Spotted Sucker is also found in the St. Clair River. All four species are listed as Special Concern and are on Schedule 1 of the federal Species at Risk Act.  As such, the Act requires that management plans be developed that identify management approaches for each species. Fisheries and Oceans Canada and the Parks Canada Agency, in cooperation with the government of Ontario, have developed a single management plan to aid in the conservation and management of these four species.  In recognition of the degree of overlap between these species in their distribution, as well as the commonality of threats, a multi-species approach was adopted for the management of these species.

Orders

  • Order Amending Schedule 1 to the Species at Risk Act (Volume 153, Number 17, 2019) (2019-08-21)

    Biodiversity is rapidly declining at all scales, from local to global, as a result of a variety of human activities that increase the rates of species extinction. Current extinction rates are estimated to be between 1 000 and 10 000 times higher than the natural background rate. Higher species diversity positively supports healthy and productive ecosystems that are more resilient to disturbances, and, given the interdependency of species, a loss of biodiversity can lead to a declining resilience of ecosystem functions and services (e.g. natural processes such as pest control, pollination, coastal wave attenuation, pharmaceutical products, temperature regulation and carbon fixing). These services are vital to the health of all Canadians and are important for Canada’s economic well-being. Biodiversity loss can therefore result in adverse, irreversible and broad-ranging effects on Canadians.

COSEWIC Annual Reports

  • COSEWIC Annual Report - 2011-2012 (2012-10-05)

    Under Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA), the foremost function of COSEWIC is to “assess the status of each wildlife species considered by COSEWIC to be at risk and, as part of the assessment, identify existing and potential threats to the species”. COSEWIC held two Wildlife Species Assessment Meetings in this reporting year (September 1, 2011 to September 30, 2012) from November 21 to 25, 2011 and from April 29 to May 4, 2012. On February 3, 2012, an Emergency Assessment Subcommittee of COSEWIC also assessed the status of the Tri-colored Bat (Perimyotis subflavus), the Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus), and the Northern Myotis (Myotis septentrionalis). During the current reporting period COSEWIC assessed the status or reviewed the classification of 67 wildlife species. For species already found on Schedule 1 of SARA, the classification of 32 species was reviewed by COSEWIC and the status of the wildlife species was confirmed to be in the same category (extirpated - no longer found in the wild in Canada but occurring elsewhere, endangered, threatened or of special concern). The wildlife species assessment results for the 2011-2012 reporting period include the following: Extinct: 1 Extirpated: 4 Endangered: 29 Threatened: 10 Special Concern: 15 Data Deficient: 2 Not at Risk: 6 Total: 67 Of the 67 wildlife species examined, COSEWIC reviewed the classification of 49 species that had been previously assessed. The review of classification for 26 of those species resulted in a confirmation of the same status as the previous assessment (see Table 1a).

Permits and Related Agreements

  • Explanation for issuing other simliar documents(#20-HCAA-01466 ), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2021-02-22)

    This activity concerns the construction of a new ferry terminal within the Detroit River parallel to shore, nearest to Amherstburg, Ontario. The new ferry terminal will consist of a pier and loading dock supported by metal piles. The works will require the removal of existing dock structures on the Detroit River, dredging of (390 m2) of substrate within the footprint of the new dock and along the southern shore wall, the installation of an offshore steel sheet pile pier and subsequent infill (772 m2). The works will also include the installation of a separate steel sheet wall along the proponents entire property (145 meter), and the infilling (1,420 m2) of the embayment containing the former ferry dock. A fish rescue will be required for the pier construction and the infilling of the embayment. Captured fishes will be kept in temporary holding containers, monitored and released alive in suitable habitat upstream of the work area as soon as possible. The construction of the new pier and subsequent works is required because the existing ferry dock is at risk of catastrophic failure before the replacement facility can be completed and commissioned. Such a failure and disruption of ferry service will result in no access to or from the island for residents or for emergency vehicles. The activities associated with the proposed project described above that are likely to result in prohibited impacts to aquatic species at risk, critical habitat, and/or the residences of individuals, are incidental harm, harassment, or potential death of Channel Darter (Percina copelandi) (Lake Erie populations), Pugnose Minnow (Opsopoeodus emiliae), and Northern Madtom (Noturus stigmosus) resulting from the fish rescue and relocation program for the pier construction and embayment infill.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-­PCAA-­00045 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit is to sample municipal drains for the purpose of classifying unrated drains, following the Classifying Ontario Municipal Drains Protocol (Fisheries and Oceans Canada). As fisheries assessments have not been previously conducted on many unrated municipal drains, the species listed on the permit may inhabit these drains and may be captured incidentally during the course of the work. The activities authorized by the permit include: 1. The incidental capture of the species listed on the permit from the locations listed on the permit using seine nets and/or backpack electrofishing units. Within each sample site, approximately 40 m or 10x the wetted width of the watercourse will be sampled for fishes using either a backpack electrofisher, or a seine net depending on habitat suitability. Within the sample site, block nets will be set up and a minimum of three passes will be completed; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Vouchers will be collected for larger fishes and all mussels using digital cameras; however, some vouchers of smaller fishes may be retained, in 10% formalin or 95% ethanol, to confirm identification (if digital vouchers cannot be collected); and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-HCAA-00343 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-04-16)

    This activity consists of a culvert replacement of an existing 15 m by 2.5 m by 2.1 m concrete culvert under the road with a new steel polymer 18 m by 2.5 m by 2.1 m coated pipe arch culvert in Maxwell Creek (East), Ontario. The culvert will be embedded and allowed to naturally silt over. Rip-rap slope protection will be installed at each end. These culvert replacement works requires the use of a cofferdam for the duration of in-water works (maximum five weeks). This will require a fish rescue, which could result in the incidental harm, capture, and harassment of Lake Chubsucker (Erimyzon sucetta) and Pugnose Minnow (Opsopoeodus emiliae) in the work area during site isolation and fish rescue operations.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-HCAA-00361 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-07-20)

    The activity is being undertaken to replace three undersized culverts on Chappus Drain near LaSalle, Ontario. The hydraulic capacity will be improved from 14.19 m3/s to 15.20 m3/s to prevent future crossing failures and potential flooding. Two pre-cast concrete box culverts with river stone installed along the channel bottom are proposed to increase hydraulic capacity and meet fish passage requirements. Approximately 280 m2 of channel will be isolated during a temporary disruption to create dry conditions for the purpose of excavating the existing culverts and installing new culverts. Isolation of the existing channel will be a full constriction for a maximum of four weeks. All in-water works will be conducted between July 20 and August 31, 2020. Pugnose Minnow (Opsopoeodus emiliae) distribution habitat is present at the crossing location, and Pugnose Shiner (Notropis anogenus) distribution habitat is present 100 m downstream of the proposed works. Pugnose Minnow, and to a lesser extent, Pugnose Shiner may be present at the time of construction. Distribution habitat is also present for Spotted Sucker (Minytrema melanops) and Silver Lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), listed as species of Special Concern, downstream of the proposed culvert replacements.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-HCAA-01439 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-05-04)

    The project involves structural repairs to the deck, and patch repairs of abutments of two bridges located on the North Sydenham River. Work will be conducted with a turbidity curtain installed, and after a mussel and fish salvage occurs. Rip rap scour protection will be placed below the high water mark with an instream footprint of 35 m2 at each site. The activities authorized by this permit that may cause incidental harm to Lilliput (Toxolasma parvum), Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida) (Ontario populations), and Pugnose Minnow (Opsopoeodus emiliae) are the incidental capture of Lilliput during site isolation and mussel relocation operations, and the incidental capture of Eastern Sand Darter and Pugnose Minnow during site isolation and fish relocation operations.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00027 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit are to conduct fish and mussel surveys in the St. Clair River watershed and the Lake St. Clair watershed. Baseline data collected will be used to assist in future project proposals and inquiries. Species at risk listed on the permit may be captured during surveys. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of any of the species listed on the permit from the watersheds listed on the permit. Sampling will be completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit, seine net, or minnow traps where necessary, using the Ontario Stream Assessment Protocol (OSAP). Mussel surveys will adhere to Mackie et al. (2008); 2. The handling of any of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing. Fishes will be identified, counted, and released alive with the exception of some smaller fishes that may be retained to confirm identification. All mussels will be returned alive to the locations they were found; and, 3. The possession and transport of any species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00030 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit are to conduct a survey for Pugnose Minnow (Opsopoeodus emiliae) in southwestern Ontario waterbodies. This survey would consist of seining wadeable habitats with bag seines and non-wadeable habitats with boat seines. Sampling may also result in the incidental capture of Silver Chub (Macrhybopsis storeriana) (Great Lakes - Upper St. Lawrence populations) . The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of Pugnose Minnow from the locations listed on the permit (Canard River, Lake St. Clair, North Sydenham River, East Sydenham River, Maxwell Creek, Little Bear Creek, and Lake St. Clair and tributaries) using bag and/or boat seine nets; 2. The incidental capture of Silver Chub from the locations listed on the permit using bag and/or boat seine nets; 3. The handling of Pugnose Minnow and Silver Chub for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Vouchers will be collected using digital cameras but some vouchers of smaller fishes may be retained, in 10% formalin, to confirm identification (if digital vouchers cannot be collected); and, 4. The possession and transport of Pugnose Minnow and/or Silver Chub killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00053 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit are to conduct a fish community assessment in the Detroit and St. Clair rivers. Surveys will take place from August to September of 2019. The species listed on the permit may be captured during the course of the work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit from the Detroit and St. Clair rivers. Sampling will be conducted using a boat electrofishing unit (waters 3 m deep), and large-mesh gill nets (1.8 m tall x 50 m long; 38-127 mm mesh). Twenty randomly selected sites will be sampled in each river; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Vouchers will be collected using digital cameras but some vouchers of smaller fishes may be retained, in 10% formalin, to confirm identification (if digital vouchers cannot be collected); and, 3. The possession and transport of species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00054 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit are to evaluate the biological condition of all Great Lakes Coastal wetlands greater than 4 ha. Surveys include census (by different specialized teams) of avifauna, amphibians, fishes, macrophytes, aquatic invertebrates, and water quality. Species listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during the course of the work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit from the locations listed on the permit using fyke nets. Three replicate fyke nets will be placed in each of up to four dominant vegetation zones per wetland for a single night (up to 24 h) during the season. The maximum fishing effort at any site would be 12 nets for 24 h; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, photograph, etc.). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Vouchers will be collected using digital cameras, but some vouchers of smaller fishes may be retained to confirm identification (if digital vouchers cannot be collected); and, 3. The possession and transport of species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00056 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit are to conduct early detection surveillance sampling for Asian carps in nearshore areas and tributaries of the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes basin. A total of 36 early detection sites have been selected in the Great Lakes basin. The species listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during the course of work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit from the locations listed on the permit using fyke nets, gill nets, hoopnets, trap nets, trammel nets, light traps, boat electrofishing, boat seining, bongo nets, seine nets, backpack electrofishing, and/or trawling; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Vouchers will be collected using digital cameras, but some vouchers of smaller fishes may be retained to confirm identification if digital vouchers cannot be collected; and, 3. The possession and transport of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00057 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit are to collect species at risk fishes in Ontario for Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) Species At Risk Network grant research on captive breeding. Captive rearing, life history, and reproduction of species at risk fishes will be studied at the University of Windsor by raising individuals in captivity and creating captive-bred offspring for study. The species listed on the permit may targeted or captured incidentally during the course of the work. The activities authorized by the permit include: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit, via seine netting, at the locations listed on the permit; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, buccal swabbing for DNA, and photograph). With the exception of specimens retained for captive breeding (a maximum of 30 individuals), all fishes will be released alive after processing; 3. The possession and transport of a maximum of 30 individuals of each species (if targeted) listed on the permit for captive-rearing experiments at the University of Windsor Freshwater Restoration Ecology Centre. For each species retained, a field determination of abundance shall be conducted to ensure that the population can support the loss of 30 individuals. Transport will be conducted using standard practices for fish transport, including a suitable truck-based container and oxygen supply. At the Freshwater Restoration Ecology Centre, there are specially designed tanks with ample space to raise small species at risk. The collected individuals will be housed within this system. Specimens will be cared for following the University of Windsor Animal Care Protocol AUPP 17-20; and, 4. The possession and transport of any specimens of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00058 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-23)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit is to assess the fish community and habitat conditions within the St. Clair River Area of Concern. The species listed on this permit may be captured incidentally. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The incidental capture of species listed on this permit using fyke nets from the locations listed on this permit. Fyke nets will be set for 24 hours before being fished; 2. The handling of the species listed on this permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing; and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on this permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00007 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-03-16)

    Under the guidance of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), the activity involves: 1) establishing a network of permanent monitoring stations throughout historical and present ranges of the Sydenham River, to permit tracking of fish populations, analysis of trends and patterns, and permit the evaluation of recovery actions; 2) establishing and implementing a habitat monitoring program that includes water quality and substrate components. The monitoring program will provide insight into the significance of threat factors. Targeted species at risk fish sampling will be conducted in historically occupied habitat (river reaches in the vicinity of Florence and Alvinston), as well as other potentially suitable habitats, using sampling techniques proven to detect species at risk fishes; and, 3) starting in 2020 and following the guidance of DFO, conduct a spatial pattern study of mussel distribution by completing a systematic survey in a specific reach (or reaches) in order to better understand population abundance/density and species-to-habitat relationships in the Sydenham The St. Clair Region Conservation Authority (SCRCA) will collect fishes using a backpack electrofishing unit, seine net, or minnow traps where necessary, using the Ontario Stream Assessment Protocol. Mussel surveys will adhere to protocol found in Mackie et al. (2008). Fifteen sites will be monitored according to the Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network Protocol. At each site, this protocol involves using the travelling kick and sweep method for three minutes, covering an area of about 10 m2 at three transects (optimally riffle-pool-riffle) within a stream meander wavelength. The sites are selected to represent the main watercourse. Each of the small watercourses has at least one sampling site.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00021 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-06-16)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit are to conduct surveys for Pugnose Minnow (Opsopoeodus emiliae) in the lower North Sydenham River, lower East Sydenham River, Maxwell Creek, Little Bear Creek, Lake St. Clair, and St. Clair River tributaries, Ontario. The species listed on the permit may be captured during this work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit from the locations listed above using seine nets and trawling gear; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Vouchers will be collected using digital cameras, but some vouchers of smaller fishes may be retained to confirm identification if digital vouchers cannot be collected; and, 3. The possession and transport of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00036 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-07-23)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit are to conduct fish community surveys in the lower Thames River and its tributaries, within the jurisdiction of the Lower Thames River Conservation Authority, in Ontario. The species listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during this work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit via seining (fishes) and quadrat/visual surveys (mussels), from the lower Thames River watershed; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Any mussels captured will be released alive at the location of capture; and, 3. The possession and transport of the species listed on this permit killed incidentally as a result of sampling and/or processing or for vouchering purposes (fishes only).
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#21-PCAA-00009 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2021-03-10)

    The objectives of the activities covered by this permit include: 1. Establishing a network of permanent monitoring stations throughout the Sydenham River, in Ontario, to permit tracking of fish populations, analysis of trends and patterns, and permit the evaluation of recovery actions; 2. To conduct a spatial pattern study of mussel distribution by completing a systematic survey in a specific reach (or reaches) in order to better understand population abundance and density, and species to habitat relationships in the Sydenham River; and, 3. To conduct benthic sampling at fifteen sites according to the Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network Protocol. The mussels and fishes listed on the permit may be encountered incidentally during the work. The activities authorized by this permit consist of: 1. The capture of any of the species listed on the permit from the St. Clair River watershed and/or the Lake St. Clair watershed. Sampling will be completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit, seine net, or minnow traps where necessary, using the Ontario Stream Assessment Protocol. Mussel surveys will adhere to Mackie et al. (2008). Benthic surveys will employ the travelling kick-and-sweep method for three minutes, covering an area of about 10 m at three transects (optimally riffle-pool-riffle) within a stream meander wavelength; 2. The handling of any of the species listed on this permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, and photograph). Fishes will be identified, counted, and released alive, with the exception of some smaller fishes that may be retained to confirm identification. All mussels will be returned alive to the locations they were found; and, 3. The possession and transport of any species listed on this permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#21-PCAA-00022 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2021-05-05)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit include: 1. Conducting fish and mussel community surveys within locations in the lower Thames River watershed (from Delaware, ON, to the mouth), lower Thames River tributaries, Rondeau Bay and tributaries, McGeachy Pond, Lake Erie tributaries (between Two Creeks and Talbot Creek), and Lake St. Clair tributaries (between the mouth of the Thames River to Boyle Drain); and, 2. To conduct targeted seining surveys for Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida) (Ontario populations) within the Thames River. The 19 species at risk (SAR) listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during this work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the species listed on this permit via seining (fishes) and quadrat or visual surveys (mussels), from the locations listed previously; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Any mussels captured will be released alive at the location of capture; and, 3. The possession and transport of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally as a result of sampling and/or processing, or for vouchering purposes.
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Consultation Documents

  • Consultation Workbook on the proposed listing: Pugnose Minnow (2013-11-29)

    This species has recently been re-assessed as Threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). It was previously listed as Special Concern in 2003 under the federal Species at Risk Act and a management plan was developed in 2009. If the species is listed as threatened under SARA, a recovery strategy will be developed.
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