Species Profile

Carmine Shiner

Scientific Name: Notropis percobromus
Other/Previous Names: Rosyface Shiner (Manitoba population)
Taxonomy Group: Fishes
COSEWIC Range: Manitoba
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: April 2018
COSEWIC Status: Endangered
COSEWIC Status Criteria: B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)
COSEWIC Reason for Designation: The range of this small, colourful minnow is restricted to Manitoba. Although there is limited information on population trends since the last assessment, projected declines over the next 10 years related to the threat of habitat loss and pollution will put the species at risk of extinction in Canada.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Special Concern in April 1994. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in November 2001 and in April 2006. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in April 2018.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Endangered
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2003-06-05

Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.

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Quick Links: | Photo | Description | Distribution and Population | Habitat | Biology | Threats | Protection | Recovery Initiatives | National Recovery Program | Documents

Image of Carmine Shiner

Carmine Shiner Photo 1

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Description

The species is a slender, silvery-coloured minnow with a large mouth and transparent fins; it averages 51 to 76 mm in length. Its name comes from the bright red colour that appears on the head and pectoral fins of the breeding male. On females, the red hue, if it develops, is paler. Breeding males also develop 100 or more small, rounded swellings that occur primarily on the snout, lower jaw and anterior pectoral; and sometimes on the upper surfaces of the pelvic, dorsal and anal fins. Similar swellings, or tubercles, may appear on the heads of females. The species is closely related to both Emerald and Silver Shiners. The body of the Emerald Shiner is deeper and more compressed, and its snout is blunt and shorter. The Silver Shiner has a prominent stripe on its mid-back, nine pelvic rays and dark crescents between its nostrils. The dorsal fin of the Silver Shiner is also set closer to the front compared with the Carmine Shiner.

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Distribution and Population

The Carmine Shiner is found in southcentral western Manitoba. It is rare in Manitoba but has occured in the province over a long time. It has been recorded in the Whitemouth-Birch river systems, and it may also occur in the Red River in southern Manitoba.

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Habitat

The Carmine Shiner prefers clear, fast-flowing larger streams and small rivers with clean gravel bottoms. It is often found in schools in riffles (shallow parts of streams where water flows brokenly). It also occurs in clear pools in the lower portions of streams near where they join with larger streams or rivers; an area in which aquatic insects are plentiful. The species cannot tolerate turbid or silty water. Silt-free pools and water temperatures of at least 21 °C seem to be critical for spawning activity in New York State.

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Biology

United States studies provide details about spawning. They have found that schools of 8 to 12 fish rush into a spawning area. The opposite sexes collide. Mating sessions are a brief five or six seconds in duration. The pair vibrates over a depression in the gravel, and the eggs are then released and fertilized. The fish are apparently mature at one year of age. One-year-old females have been found to carry an average of 600 eggs. Three-year-olds carry an average of 1,175 eggs. Aquatic and terrestrial insects make up a vast majority of the diet of the species, which also eats algae and inorganic material. No information is available on the species' water temperature requirements.

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Threats

This fish appears to have specific habitat requirements, and responds quickly to any changes in habitat and water quality. Since 1938, some Ohio populations have decreased to the point of extirpation due to increased silt muddying the water. In Illinois, Kentucky and Minnesota, the species is disappearing from streams modified by impoundments and excessive silt.

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Protection

Federal Protection

The Carmine Shiner is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

The federal Fisheries Act prohibits destruction of fish habitat.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.

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Recovery Initiatives

Status of Recovery Planning

Recovery Strategies :

Name Recovery Strategy for the Carmine Shiner (Notropis percobromus) in Canada
Status Final posting on SAR registry

Name (Amended) Recovery Strategy for the Carmine Shiner (Notropis percobromus) in Canada
Status Final posting on SAR registry

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Recovery Progress and Activities

Summary of Progress to Date Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) has initiated research and monitoring studies to improve understanding of the Carmine Shiner’s taxonomy, biology, and habitat in order to make more effective recovery and management decisions. Sampling from 2003-2004 has extended the distribution of the Carmine Shiner to include a portion of the Winnipeg and Bird Rivers, and Pinawa Channel. Summary of Research/Monitoring Activities In 2003-2006, sampling was conducted within the Winnipeg River system and tributaries to investigate Carmine Shiner distribution, habitat requirements, and life-history traits. A small sample of Carmine Shiners was collected to provide information on population age structure, diet, fecundity, and other life-history traits. All sampling locations were recorded using a Global Positioning System and habitat conditions (water depth, temperature, velocity, water clarity, conductivity, and substrate type) were assessed at each location. In an effort to resolve some of the identification issues for the species, ongoing research is being conducted into the interrelationship between populations of Carmine Shiner in Manitoba and the Rosyface Shiner complex in central North America using genetic analyses and differences in body structure and appearance. Summary of Recovery Activities Since 2004, nearly 800 acres of prairie riparian habitat inhabited by species at risk, including the Carmine Shiner, have been purchased through conservation easements by the Manitoba Habitat Heritage Corporation (MHHC) under the Manitoba Prairies Ecozone Habitat Stewardship Project. The MHHC actively encourages landowners to adopt land use practices that protect riparian habitat while sustaining agricultural productivity. Public education materials, including Species at Risk – A guide to Canada’s species at risk in the Prairie Provinces and The Carmine Shiner - a Species at Risk in the Prairie Provinces (DFO Fact Sheet) have been developed and distributed. Educational sessions focusing on prairie species at risk have been delivered to the general public and consultations with landowners and stakeholders are ongoing. URLs Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada:http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/species-especes/species/species_carmineShiner_e.asp Environment Canada: Carmine Shiner:http://www.pnr-rpn.ec.gc.ca/nature/endspecies/sar/db08s21.en.html Manitoba Habitat Heritage Corporation:http://www.mhhc.mb.ca/index.html

Documents

PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

34 record(s) found.

Reports on the Progress of Recovery Document Implementation

  • Report on the Progress of Recovery Strategy Implementation for the Carmine Shiner (Notropis percobromus) in Canada for the Period 2008-2013 (2015-07-13)

    In 2003, the Manitoba population of Carmine Shiner was legally listed as a “Threatened” species under the Species at Risk Act (SARA). In 2006, COSEWIC re-examined and confirmed the status of the Carmine Shiner as “Threatened” based on an updated status report (COSEWIC 2006). Once a species is listed under the SARA as “Threatened”, a recovery strategy must be developed. The Carmine Shiner Recovery Team developed the first recovery strategy (Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2008) which was posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry in 2008. The recovery strategy was revised and re-posted to the Species at Risk Public Registry in 2013 (Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2013). This report addresses the progress towards meeting the objectives listed in the Recovery Strategy for the Carmine Shiner in Canada, since its publication in 2008.

COSEWIC Status Reports

Response Statements

  • Response Statement - Carmine Shiner (2019-01-11)

    The range of this small, colourful minnow is restricted to Manitoba. Although there is limited information on population trends since the last assessment, projected declines over the next 10 years related to the threat of habitat loss and pollution will put the species at risk of extinction in Canada.
  • Response Statements - Carmine Shiner (2006-11-29)

    This freshwater fish species occurs in an extremely restricted area of Manitoba. The major threat to the species is the alteration in water flow as a result of stream regulation.

Recovery Strategies

  • Recovery Strategy for the Carmine Shiner (Notropis percobromus) in Canada (2013-10-24)

    Carmine shiners are slender, elongate minnows. They are omnivorous lower to mid-level consumers and spawn in early summer. In summer, fish in Manitoba are found mostly at midwater depths of clear, brown coloured, fast flowing creeks and small rivers with clean gravel or rubble substrates, usually in or near riffles. Otherwise, little is known of their biology, life history, distribution, or abundance. Information available on the species’ physiology or ability to adapt to different conditions is insufficient to identify factors that might limit its recovery.

Action Plans

  • Action Plan for the Carmine Shiner (Notropis percobromus) in Canada (2018-08-10)

    In 2003, the Carmine Shiner was legally listed as Threatened under the Species at Risk Act (SARA). In 2006, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) re-examined and confirmed the status of the Carmine Shiner as Threatened based on an updated status report (COSEWIC 2006). Subsequent to listing the Carmine Shiner as Threatened is the requirement for the development of a recovery strategy. The Carmine Shiner Recovery Team developed the first Recovery Strategy, which was posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry in 2008 (Carmine Shiner Recovery Team 2007).  In 2013, the Recovery Strategy was revised (including the identification of critical habitat) and re-posted to the Public Registry (Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2013). This Action Plan addresses the ongoing and future activities towards meeting the objectives listed in the Recovery Strategy for the Carmine Shiner since its publication in 2008 and the revised Recovery Strategy.

Orders

  • Order Amending Schedule 1 to the Species at Risk Act (Volume 154, Number 4, January 25 2020) (2020-10-28)

    The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) completed reassessments of the status of three aquatic wildlife species: Carmine Shiner, Rainbow Smelt (Lake Utopia large-bodied population) and Rainbow Smelt (Lake Utopia small-bodied population). These three species are currently listed as threatened on the List of Wildlife Species at Risk (Schedule 1) of the Species at Risk Act (SARA), but have been reassessed by COSEWIC and designated as endangered.

COSEWIC Annual Reports

  • COSEWIC Annual Report - 2006 (2006-08-30)

    2006 Annual Report to the The Minister of the Environment and the Canadian Endangered Species Conservation Council (CESCC) from the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.
  • COSEWIC Annual Report 2017 to 2018 (2018-10-15)

    Over the past year COSEWIC assessed a total of 90 wildlife species and 11 of these were assigned a status of Not at Risk. Of these 90, COSEWIC re-examined the status of 38 wildlife species; of these, the majority (87%) were reassessed at the same or lower level of risk. To date and with the submission of this report, COSEWIC’s assessments now include 771 wildlife species in various risk categories including 338 Endangered, 183 Threatened, 228 Special Concern, and 22 Extirpated (i.e. no longer found in the wild in Canada). In addition, 18 wildlife species have been assessed as Extinct, and a total of 59 wildlife species have also been designated as Data Deficient and 197 have been assessed and assigned Not at Risk status.

Permits and Related Agreements

Critical Habitat Orders

  • Critical Habitat of Carmine Shiner (Notropis percobromus) Order (2018-09-19)

    The Carmine Shiner (Notropis percobromus) is found in the Whitemouth, Birch and Winnipeg river watersheds in Manitoba. While there is no evidence that Carmine Shiner populations have declined over time, because of its limited distribution and abundance, the species may be sensitive to future anthropogenic disturbances. In November 2001, and in April 2006, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) assessed the status of the Carmine Shiner and classified the species as a threatened species. Following an updated status report and reassessment by COSEWIC in April 2018, the status of the Carmine Shiner changed from threatened to endangered.

Recovery Document Posting Plans

  • Recovery Document Posting Plan - Fisheries and Oceans Canada - Fiscal Year 2016-2017 (2018-09-28)

    Under the Species at Risk Act (SARA), the competent Minister(s) must prepare a recovery strategy within one year of listing a species on Schedule 1 of SARA as endangered and within two years of listing a species as extirpated or threatened. A management plan must be prepared within three years for a species listed as special concern. Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) is accountable for 111 of the 518 species listed under SARA. As of February 2016, proposed recovery strategies, management plans and action plans for 57 of those species have not yet been posted to the Species at Risk Public Registry. An additional 23 aquatic species have proposed management or action plans coming due in the future. The following outlines the Department’s plan for posting proposed documents for 64 species on the Species at Risk Public Registry. The Department has a plan to post recovery strategies for 9 species, management plans for 13 species, and action plans for 42 species over the next year. Original publication of the Recovery Document Posting Plan: 2016-05-02
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