Scientific Name: Notropis photogenis
Taxonomy Group: Fishes
COSEWIC Range: Ontario
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: May 2011
COSEWIC Status: Threatened
COSEWIC Status Criteria: B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)
COSEWIC Reason for Designation:
This small riverine fish is found at fewer than 10 locations and has a small area of occupancy. The susceptibility of the species to continuing habitat loss and degradation with increasing development pressure resulted in an increase in status.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Special Concern in April 1983. Status re-examined and confirmed in April 1987. Status re-examined and designated Threatened in May 2011.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Threatened
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2019-08-08
Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.
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Image of Silver Shiner
The Silver Shiner is a member of the carp family. The sides of the fish are silvery with bluish reflections. There is a midflank stripe that is broadest to the rear, and there may be an iridescent gold or blue dorsolateral stripe. The lateral line has spots above and below each pore; there are 36-41 large lateral line scales. The back of the fish is green, yellow or slaty-olive, overlain with silvery or steel blue. The middorsal stripe is narrow and sharply defined, and may be iridescent gold or bluish. The belly is white to silvery. The fins are generally clear, although the lower ones may be whitish; the dorsal and caudal fins have dark margins. The dorsal fin origin lies over the pelvic fin insertion. There are 8-12 branched anal fin rays. The body depth is less than the head length. Adult fish range from about 5.7 to 11.0 cm in length.
Distribution and Population
The fish is endemic to North America, and has a fairly wide distribution in east-central United States (from Michigan and Indiana east to New York and south to Georgia). In Canada, it occurs only in southern Ontario, in the watersheds of the Grand and Thames rivers and Brontë Creek, and in the drainages of the Great Lakes Erie, St. Clair and Ontario. The species was first reported from Canada in 1973, though older collections have since been found. It appears that the fish populations in Canada have been reproductively isolated from the U.S. populations for a long time, and it is not likely that the two groups will come in contact.
The Silver Shiner was found to be locally abundant in the Grand and Thames river watersheds in 1979. The species occurs almost continually throughout each river section within its range, but is rare in, or absent from, smaller tributary streams and slow-flowing sections of the main rivers. The increase in captures of the species since 1971 suggests an increase in numbers, and that the new locations where the species has been found in Ontario are not simply the result of surveys of new areas. Former low population levels, along with misidentification, may account for the fact that the species was not reported in Ontario until recently.
This fish is found in moderate to large, deep, relatively clear streams with swift currents, and moderate to high gradients. Stream widths at capture sites in an Ontario study mostly ranged from 30 to 100 m. Most capture sites were in deep swift riffles and faster currents of pools below the riffles. Stream substrate at capture sites was of gravel, pebble, cobble, boulder, sand, mud and clay; probably the type of substrate is not very important. The species may avoid areas with submersed vegetation. Stream sections where the water temperature is warmer may be preferred by the fish in the spring. Although spawning habitat has not been observed in Ontario, in the U.S. the fish spawns on riffles.
Silver Shiners normally occur in schools. The maximum life span of this fish is about 3 years, with rapid growth during the first year and attainment of sexual maturity during the second summer. Spawning occurs in May and June in Ontario over about a two week period, at water temperatures of 18-23 °C. There may be some upstream movement of fish to spawn, but the degree of spawning site specialization is not known. Maturing eggs are yellow, orange or pink-orange, and up to 1.1 mm in diameter.
The fish is primarily a surface feeder; it may jump to catch flying insects. Prey items include aquatic insects, crustaceans, flatworms, water mites, surface insects, and algae. Smallmouth Bass are known to be predators of the Silver Shiner, and Rock Bass are possible predators.
Climatic conditions may be important in determining winter survival and spawning success for this fish, since the Canadian populations are at the edge of the species' range. Habitat quality should be protected for this species by assessment and restriction, if necessary, of dam construction, channelization, and similar undertakings. Deteriorating water quality (turbidity, pollution and impoundments) have been responsible for population declines in Ohio. Stream gradient appears to have limited the species' distribution in the Grand River watershed to sections with a gradient between 0.3 and 5.7 m/km.
The Silver Shiner is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA).
More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.
The Federal Fisheries Act prohibits destruction of fish habitat. The great majority of the riparian lands within the species' range are privately owned, however.
Provincial and Territorial Protection
To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.
Grand River Recovery Team
Shawn Staton - Chair/Contact - Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Phone: 905-336-4864 Fax: 905-336-6437 Send Email
PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.
29 record(s) found.
COSEWIC Status Reports
The Silver Shiner is an elongate and silvery fish reaching a maximum total length of 14.3 cm. It is distinguished from other shiners by having an anal fin with more than eight rays, a pair of crescents between the nostrils, a clearly defined stripe along the back in front of the dorsal fin, and a dorsal fin that is directly opposite the end of the base of the pelvic fins. It is frequently confused with the Rosyface Shiner and the Emerald Shiner, but these two species lack crescents between the nostrils, have a wider, more diffuse stripe along the back in front of the dorsal fin, and have a dorsal fin which begins well behind the base of the anal fin. There is no evidence of more than a single designatable unit in the Silver Shiner.
This small riverine fish is found at fewer than 10 locations and has a small area of occupancy. The susceptibility of the species to continuing habitat loss and degradation with increasing development pressure resulted in an increase in status.
Silver Shiner was listed as threatened under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) in 2019. This recovery strategy and action plan is considered one in a series of documents for this species that are linked and should be taken into consideration together, including the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) status report (2011), a recovery potential assessment (DFO 2013), and possibly further action plans. Recovery has been determined to be biologically and technically feasible.
Biodiversity is rapidly declining at all scales, from local to global, as a result of a variety of human activities that increase the rates of species extinction. Current extinction rates are estimated to be between 1 000 and 10 000 times higher than the natural background rate. Higher species diversity positively supports healthy and productive ecosystems that are more resilient to disturbances, and, given the interdependency of species, a loss of biodiversity can lead to a declining resilience of ecosystem functions and services (e.g. natural processes such as pest control, pollination, coastal wave attenuation, pharmaceutical products, temperature regulation and carbon fixing). These services are vital to the health of all Canadians and are important for Canada’s economic well-being. Biodiversity loss can therefore result in adverse, irreversible and broad-ranging effects on Canadians.
COSEWIC Annual Reports
Under Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA), the foremost function of COSEWIC is to “assess the status of each wildlife species considered by COSEWIC to be at risk and, as part of the assessment, identify existing and potential threats to the species”.
COSEWIC held two Wildlife Species Assessment Meetings during the past year assessing the status or reviewing the classification of a total of 92 wildlife species.
Permits and Related Agreements
The County of Wellington is replacing the Badley Bridge that spans the Grand River in the downtown core of the Village of Elora. The works will require the complete removal of the existing bridge structure and construction of a new three-span bridge. Two new in-water piers will be required, and their footings will occupy areas of the riverbed that are presently considered fish habitat. Construction will proceed over a period of 2 years, with Phase 1 construction of two new permanent in-water piers below the bridge using a temporary rock-fill work platform, and two cofferdams to undertake the removal of the old structure and the construction of the new pier footings. The in-water work platform will remain in place over the winter of 2019-2020, while the cofferdams shall be removed before the restricted timing window for the focal reach of the Grand River. Construction access will be provided from the south bank with construction of an access ramp in the southeast quadrant to a rock fill platform. Phase 2 demolition of the existing structure will begin once Phase 1 works are complete. A temporary in-water rock platform, construction access, and cofferdams will facilitate construction of the bridge piers, pier caps, and superstructure.
The works, undertakings, or activities associated with the proposed project described above that are likely to result in the harmful alteration, disruption, or destruction of fish habitat include the installation of an access road comprised of clean rip rap covering 724 m2 of the Grand River, for 11 months; construction of cofferdams composed of polyethylene-lined, pea gravel-filled sandbags to isolate 131 m2 of the Grand River, while maintaining downstream flows and fish passage by leaving at least one third of the wetted width of the Grand River unobstructed; and, the installation of two pier footings (82 m2) and armouring of these new piers with a total of 69 m2 of rip rap. As the aforementioned activities involve in-water work, they all have the potential to affect the Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei) and Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis), and thus would be considered incidental to carrying out the work.
The Municipality of Halton is proposing to widen an existing bridge over Sixteen Mile Creek southeast of Milton, Ontario at the Britannia Road crossing as part of the Britannia Road Transportation Corridor Improvement Project. The Municipality of Halton is proposing to replace the existing 19.8 m long single span concrete rigid frame bridge (with a deck width of 11.6 m) with two 33.0 m long single span slab-on-steel girder bridges to accommodate the six-lane section of Britannia Road (with a total deck width will be 36.8 m). The two existing abutments will be removed from the wetted channel, and the new abutments will be placed within excavated ground on the banks above the wetted channel. An isolation and fish rescue is required to relocate fishes observed within the isolation. A total of approximately 60 m2 of fish habitat along the banks below the ordinary high water mark will be permanently altered by the placement of new abutments. A total of approximately 100 m2 of fish habitat along the banks, below the ordinary high water mark, will be permanently altered by the placement of rip rap armouring to protect abutments against scouring.
Distribution habitat is present at the project site for Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis).The in-water portion of the project is planned to occur July 1 to September 15 in each of 2021 and 2022, aligned with in-water timing windows provide by the Ministry of Environment, Conservation and Parks (MECP).
The proposed works consist of the deployment of turbidity curtains in the downstream reaches of Bronte Creek, and dredging within these curtains to facilitate navigation. This dredging has been undertaken every 4 to 8 years for decades to maintain navigation depths in the creek mouth. An excavator working from a barge will remove creek bottom sediment, deepening the channel. A fish relocation will occur within the area isolated by the turbidity curtains using electrofishing and/or seine netting, and collected fishes will be released alive in Bronte Creek upstream of the work area. Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis) is known to be present in the marina where the activities will take place and may be incidentally harmed during site isolation, fish relocation, and dredging operations.
The activity is being undertaken to repair damaged sections of the concrete-lined channel in Sixteen Mile Creek. The damage is in the form of cracks in the concrete. The works involve partial isolations of the damaged concrete, clearing out the compromised concrete, and repairing cracks by adding concrete to the channel lining. The proposed activities consist of two phases: isolation of the right bank, a fish rescue where Redside Dace (Clinostomus elongatus) and Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis) may be present, and repairing the concrete lining of the channel; followed by isolation of the left bank, a fish rescue where Redside Dace and Silver Shiner may be present, and repairing the concrete lining of the channel. The habitat present within the affected area of the proposed project is listed as within the distribution range of these two species; however, no critical habitat is present.
The Township of Centre Wellington plans to repair three exiting stone piers on the historical
Victoria Street Bridge in Elora, ON, over the Grand River. This will require the installation of an access road comprised of clean rip rap covering 420 m2 of the Grand River for four months. The access road will not extend past 50% of the wetted width and will be intersected with five 900 mm diameter by 18 m long corrugate steel pipe culverts to maintain downstream flow and fish passage. It will also involve the construction of three cofferdams composed of non-permeable pea gravel filled bags to isolate 370 m2 of the Grand River for three months as well as repair to three existing piers in the Grand River, expanding each pier's footprint by 10 m2, effectively removing 30 m2 of fish habitat from the Grand River.
As the aforementioned activities involve in-water work, they all have the potential to affect Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei) and Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis), and thus the harm would be considered incidental to carrying out the work.
The objectives of the activities covered by the permit include: 1. To conduct fisheries sampling as part of Conservation Halton's aquatic monitoring program. Sampling will be completed at 94 sites across the jurisdiction with sites rotating over a two-year period. Sampling is typically completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit and/or a seine net. Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis) may be encountered during this sampling; and, 2. To conduct pre- and post-restoration monitoring in areas where projects have been completed to improve habitat conditions. This monitoring will occur in occupied habitat with the potential of catching Silver Shiner.
The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of Silver Shiner with a backpack electrofisher and/or seine net within the watersheds listed on the permit. Sampling will be completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit, using the Ontario Stream Assessment Protocol (Stanfield 2010) methodology (i.e., 2-5 seconds/m2); 2. The handling of Silver Shiner for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, and photograph). Fishes will be identified, counted, and released alive with the exception of some smaller fishes that may be retained to confirm identification; and, 3.The possession and transport of dead Silver Shiner killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes, preserved in 10% formalin or 95% ethanol.
The objective of the activities covered by this permit are to conduct fish and mussel surveys in the Thames River watershed. Baseline data collected will be used to assist in future project proposals and inquiries. Species at risk listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during surveys.
The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The incidental capture of any of the species listed on the permit from the Thames River watershed. Fish sampling will be completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit. Mussel surveys will adhere to Mackie et al. (2008); 2. The handling of any of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing. Fishes will be identified, counted, and released alive with the exception of some smaller fishes that may be retained to confirm identification. All mussels will be returned alive to the locations they were found; and, 3. The possession and transport of any species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
The objective of the activities covered by the permit are to conduct early detection surveillance sampling for Asian carps in nearshore areas and tributaries of the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes basin. A total of 36 early detection sites have been selected in the Great Lakes basin. The species listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during the course of work.
The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit from the locations listed on the permit using fyke nets, gill nets, hoopnets, trap nets, trammel nets, light traps, boat electrofishing, boat seining, bongo nets, seine nets, backpack electrofishing, and/or trawling; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Vouchers will be collected using digital cameras, but some vouchers of smaller fishes may be retained to confirm identification if digital vouchers cannot be collected; and, 3. The possession and transport of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
The objective of the activities covered by the permit are to collect species at risk fishes in Ontario for Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) Species At Risk Network grant research on captive breeding. Captive rearing, life history, and reproduction of species at risk fishes will be studied at the University of Windsor by raising individuals in captivity and creating captive-bred offspring for study. The species listed on the permit may targeted or captured incidentally during the course of the work.
The activities authorized by the permit include: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit, via seine netting, at the locations listed on the permit; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, buccal swabbing for DNA, and photograph). With the exception of specimens retained for captive breeding (a maximum of 30 individuals), all fishes will be released alive after processing; 3. The possession and transport of a maximum of 30 individuals of each species (if targeted) listed on the permit for captive-rearing experiments at the University of Windsor Freshwater Restoration Ecology Centre. For each species retained, a field determination of abundance shall be conducted to ensure that the population can support the loss of 30 individuals. Transport will be conducted using standard practices for fish transport, including a suitable truck-based container and oxygen supply. At the Freshwater Restoration Ecology Centre, there are specially designed tanks with ample space to raise small species at risk. The collected individuals will be housed within this system. Specimens will be cared for following the University of Windsor Animal Care Protocol AUPP 17-20; and, 4. The possession and transport of any specimens of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
The objectives of the activities covered by the permit are to collect a lethal sub-sample of common fishes from the Thames River watershed in order to measure microplastic levels in wild fishes, and to explore covariation with sediment microplastic levels. The species listed on the permit may be captured incidentally.
The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The incidental capture of species listed on the permit using backpack electrofishing and seine netting from six locations in the Thames River watershed. Fishes will be sampled opportunistically, with a maximum of 10 individuals of a single species, and 60 fishes total collected at each site; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all species at risk fishes will be released alive after processing; any mussels encountered will be photographed and released alive at their location of capture; and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
Tansley Bridge at Dundas Street in the City of Burlington, Ontario, is being widened to accommodate a six-lane urban street. The in-water work component of this project consists of creating a vegetated armour stone revetment on the eastern bank due to active erosion and boulder removal beneath the existing bridge to prevent scouring. This will require the capture and relocation of Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis) within a 257 m2 prescribed search area within Bronte Creek, and may result in incidental harm of Silver Shiner, a listed aquatic species at risk, resulting from its capture, processing, and relocation.
The activity is being undertaken to widen an existing two-lane section of William Halton Parkway to four lanes, from Bronte Road (Regional Road 25) to Hospital Gate, constructing approximately 3.8 km of new four-lane roadway, including a new bridge over Sixteen Mile Creek in Oakville, Ontario. The only in-water work required is a temporary localized intrusion of the work area to construct the footings of the west pier that will be located along the west bank of the channel. This temporary work area is required to construct the west pier footings in the dry, and it will be fully isolated within a robust cofferdam, and dewatered. The total area enclosed within the cofferdam is approximately110 m2, and the total area of the channel bed occupied by it is approximately 175 m2. The cofferdam will be in place for a period of two to three years. This area is known to be Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis) habitat. The project was originally submitted to Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) in 2017 (File No. 17-HCAA-01684) and was given a Letter B for bridge work. Due to project complications and the up-listing of Silver Shiner, the project now requires a permit for fish relocation.
To achieve the objectives, the proposed activities consist of conducting fish rescues where Silver Shiner may be present. The contained area (i.e., cofferdam to be installed outwards from shoreline) has a small footprint and the flow conditions are expected to be low during its installation and removal in the summer. The disturbed sections of the channel bed and bank will be re-instated to their profile following construction.
Two bridges (structure 21 and 23) within Sixteen Mile Creek, near Oakville, Ontario, require structural repairs that may result in sub-lethal impacts to Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis). In-water work for structure 21 will consist of repairing delamination/spalling on the soffit, repairing spalling on the north abutment wall and east elevation, and installing rock protection at the southeast corner. In-water work for structure 23 will consist of installation of rock protection at the southwest and northwest corners, and repairing scaling on the east fascia.
To complete this in-water work, cofferdams will be installed upstream and downstream of the bridge, as well as at the longitudinal midline. The cofferdams will only enclose one half of the watercourse at a time to allow flow and fish passage. Cofferdams will be sized to prevent over-topping during a 2-year storm event. A fish rescue will occur to transfer any fishes isolated between the cofferdams during the initial dewatering phase. Any captured fishes will be released downstream. After all in-water repairs have been conducted, the dewatered area will be cleared of concrete fragments and other anthropogenic material, after which the cofferdams will be removed. The total area expected to be dewatered is up to 300 m2 for structure 21 and 400 m2 for structure 23. All in- and near-water works will occur from July 1 to September 14 as per the Silver Shiner in-water work window.
The proponent proposes to replace the existing nine-span Argyle Street Bridge with a new five-span bridge on the Grand River in Caledonia, Ontario. The new bridge will be built adjacent to the existing bridge using temporary piers constructed on temporary work platforms (causeway pods). Five causeway pods will be installed to access the existing bridge and install the temporary and permanent bridge piers. A clear-span access bridge will be positioned between each causeway pod to allow construction equipment to move between pods. The height of the causeway pods will be designed for a one year storm event and will be in place for approximately 2-3 years. Once the new piers are constructed, the replacement bridge will be jacked up and slid onto the pier, and the causeway pods and connected bridges will be removed from the river.
The proposed works were authorized by the Fisheries Act Authorization acting as a Species at Risk Act (SARA) permit 14-HCAA-01831, which covered the impacts to Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida) (Ontario populations), Mapleleaf (Quadrula quadrula) (Great Lakes - Upper St. Lawrence populations), and Round Pigtoe (Pleurobema sintoxia). Since the issuance of the authorization, the status of Mapleleaf has changed to Special Concern in the Grand River.
Since its issuance, Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei), Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis), Fawnsfoot (Truncilla donaciformis), and Threehorn Wartyback (Obliquaria reflexa) were listed under SARA, and are potentially present in the Grand River. A SARA permit is required for the sub-lethal impacts that may occur during construction activities to these four additional species at risk.
Conservation Halton's stewardship team completes a number of stream restoration and naturalization projects across the Conservation Halton watershed. In addition to existing projects, the stewardship team is focusing on Redside Dace (Clinostomus elongatus) related stewardship activities as a result of acceptance of federal species at risk funding in 2020. As part of the project, staff will be completing pre- and post-restoration monitoring in occupied and historical reaches specifically for the species. Sampling in areas where Redside Dace is observed will also follow a depletion method sampling, to obtain population information within the sub-watersheds. This information will be provided to Fisheries and Oceans Canada so as to better understand populations and to support modelling and assessment in support of Redside Dace recovery. The new stewardship efforts will be focused across the Upper West and Middle East branches of Sixteen Mile Creek, where landowner access has been obtained, as well as in Fourteen Mile Creek, to revisit known locations to quantify populations. While the focus will be in these areas, some existing and new projects exist across the watershed. These sites are specific and monitoring will only be focused on these properties. Conservation Halton's Long-term Environmental Monitoring Program (LEMP) has been monitoring the watersheds within the Conservation Halton jurisdiction since 2005 in an effort to assess changes to long-term health of our stream resources. As part of the aquatic monitoring program, fisheries sampling is completed at ~100 sites across the jurisdiction with sites rotating over a two year period. Sampling is typically completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit, using the Ontario Stream Assessment Protocol methodology. Sampling of the entire fish community is completed, and as a result, the capture of any species at risk would be incidental.
The objectives of the activities covered by the permit include conducting fish and mussel surveys in the Thames River watershed. Species listed on the permit may be captured incidentally.
The activities authorized by this permit consist of: 1. The capture of any of the species listed from the Thames River watershed. Fish sampling will be completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit. Mussel surveys will adhere to Mackie et al. (2008); 2. The handling of any of the listed species for the purposes of identification and processing. Fishes will be identified, counted, and released alive, with the exception of some smaller fishes that may be retained to confirm identification. All mussels will be returned alive to the locations they were found; and, 3. The possession and transport of any species listed on the permit killed incidentally.
The objective of the activities covered by the permit are to collect a lethal sub-sample of common fishes from the Upper Thames River watershed in order to measure microplastic levels in wild fishes and explore covariation with sediment microplastic levels. Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei), Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis), and Round Pigtoe (Pleurobema sintoxia) may be captured incidentally.
The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The incidental capture of species listed above using backpack electrofishing and seine netting from six locations in the Upper Thames River watershed. Fishes will be sampled opportunistically, with a maximum of ten individuals of a single species, and 60 fishes total collected at each site; 2. The handling of the species listed above for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all species at risk fishes will be released alive after processing; any mussels encountered will be photographed and released alive at location of capture; and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
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This workbook is part of a public consultation process to get your feedback on whether to add the Silver Shiner to the Species at Risk Act (SARA) List. Your answers to the following questions will help determine the federal Government’s decision.