Species Profile

Riverine Clubtail Great Lakes Plains population

Scientific Name: Stylurus amnicola
Taxonomy Group: Arthropods
COSEWIC Range: Ontario
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: November 2012
COSEWIC Status: Endangered
COSEWIC Status Criteria: B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
COSEWIC Reason for Designation: This dragonfly population is restricted to two small creeks that flow into Lake Erie. The impact of a variety of threats was determined to be very high, suggesting that there may be a substantial decline over the next decade. The threats include water withdrawal from the streams, pollution, and invasive alien species of fish that would feed on dragonfly larvae.  
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Endangered in November 2012.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Endangered
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2018-02-02

Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.

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Quick Links: | Description | Habitat | Biology | Threats | Protection | Recovery Initiatives | National Recovery Program | Documents

Description

Riverine Clubtail (Stylurus amnicola) is a dragonfly in the clubtail family. Members of the genus Stylurus are referred to as “hanging clubtails” for their habit of hanging vertically when perched on streamside vegetation. It is a small (47-49 mm long), slender dragonfly, with a prominent club at the end of the abdomen. The front of the thorax has a distinctive three-pointed star that distinguishes this species from other hanging clubtails. The abdomen is blackish with small yellow spots along the top and prominent yellow spots on the sides near the tip. Females have yellow patches along the sides of the abdomen. The hind legs are mostly black. The larvae are distinguished by their small size and shape of the abdominal segments and mouth parts. This species may serve as a useful environmental indicator. [Updated by COSEWIC- Nov. 2012]

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Distribution and Population

Riverine Clubtail occurs in eastern North America from southern Quebec and southern Manitoba south to southern Louisiana. The Canadian range of Riverine Clubtailmay be divided into three separate regions: (1) the Ottawa River and St. Lawrence River valleys of Quebec; (2) Central north shore of Lake Erie in Ontario and (3) southeastern Manitoba. The population size and trends are unknown. [Updated by COSEWIC- Nov. 2012]

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Habitat

Riverine Clubtail larvae inhabit a wide variety of riverine habitats ranging in size from the St. Lawrence River to small creeks. Larvae are typically found in microhabitats with slow to moderate flow and fine sand or silt substrates where they burrow into the stream bed. Adults disperse from the river after emerging and feed in the forest canopy and other riparian vegetation. As with other dragonfly species that inhabit rivers and streams, water regulation, pollution and invasive species may be impairing their habitat. [Updated by COSEWIC- Nov. 2012]

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Biology

Larvae spend most of their time buried just below the surface of the sediment in the bottom of the stream, breathing through the tip of the abdomen raised above the sediments. The larval stage probably lasts for two or more years prior to emergence in late June or early July. Newly emerged adults disperse inland to avoid predation until their exoskeleton hardens and they are able to fly well. Adults fly between mid July and early August, with peak numbers in mid July. Males cruise swiftly over the stream until they find a female. After mating, the female deposits eggs in the current of the open stream. Larvae obtain prey from the sediments using their prehensile labium. Adults are probably generalist and opportunist predators, feeding on small flying insects. Predators on Riverine Clubtail probably include fishes, birds, frogs, various mammals and insects including other dragonflies. [Updated by COSEWIC- Nov. 2012]

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Threats

The major threats to the Riverine Clubtail in Ontario, where threats are best understood, include water withdrawal for irrigation, water pollution, and invasive species. There is also increasing development resulting in habitat loss and increasing susceptibility to predators which are supported by human population including raccoons, and many kinds of birds for which human occupation provides both nesting and foraging sites. Some of these threats are also present in Quebec and Manitoba, but to a lesser extent. [Updated by COSEWIC- Nov. 2012]

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Protection

Federal Protection

The Riverine Clubtail, Great Lakes Plains population, is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.

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Recovery Initiatives

Status of Recovery Planning

Recovery Strategies :

Name Recovery Strategy for the Riverine Clubtail (Stylurus amnicola), Great Lakes Plains population, in Canada
Status Final posting on SAR registry

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Documents

PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

7 record(s) found.

COSEWIC Status Reports

  • COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Riverine Clubtail Stylurus amnicola in Canada (2013-10-30)

    Riverine Clubtail (Stylurus amnicola) is a dragonfly in the clubtail family. Members of the genus Stylurus are referred to as “hanging clubtails” for their habit of hanging vertically when perched on streamside vegetation. It is a small (47-49 mm long), slender dragonfly, with a prominent club at the end of the abdomen. The front of the thorax has a distinctive three-pointed star that distinguishes this species from other hanging clubtails. The abdomen is blackish with small yellow spots along the top and prominent yellow spots on the sides near the tip. Females have yellow patches along the sides of the abdomen. The hind legs are mostly black. The larvae are distinguished by their small size and shape of the abdominal segments and mouth parts. This species may serve as a useful environmental indicator.

Response Statements

  • Response Statement - Riverine Clubtail, Great Lakes Plains population (2013-12-18)

    This dragonfly population is restricted to two small creeks that flow into Lake Erie. The impact of a variety of threats was determined to be very high, suggesting that there may be a substantial decline over the next decade. The threats include water withdrawal from the streams, pollution, and invasive alien species of fish that would feed on dragonfly larvae.

Recovery Strategies

  • Recovery Strategy for the Riverine Clubtail (Stylurus amnicola), Great Lakes Plains population, in Canada (2021-10-21)

    The Minister of Environment and Climate Change is the competent minister under SARA for the Riverine Clubtail, Great Lakes Plains population, and has prepared the federal component of this recovery strategy (Part 1), as per Section 37 of SARA. To the extent possible, it has been prepared in cooperation with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry as per section 39(1) of SARA. SARA section 44 allows the Minister to adopt all or part of an existing plan for the species if it meets the requirements under SARA for content (sub-sections 41(1) or (2)). The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry led the development of the attached recovery strategy for the Riverine Clubtail (Part 2) in cooperation with Environment and Climate Change Canada. The Province of Ontario also led the development of the attached Government Response Statement (Part 3), which is the Ontario Government’s policy response to its provincial recovery strategy and summarizes the prioritized actions that the Ontario government intends to take and support. In light of the current Covid-19 pandemic, the 60-day public comment period on the proposed Recovery Strategy for the Riverine Clubtail (Stylurus amnicola), Great Lakes Plains population, in Canada has been extended to 90 days to provide sufficient time for feedback.

Orders

COSEWIC Annual Reports

  • COSEWIC Annual Report – 2012-2013 (2013-09-24)

    Under Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA), the foremost function of COSEWIC is to “assess the status of each wildlife species considered by COSEWIC to be at risk and, as part of the assessment, identify existing and potential threats to the species”. COSEWIC held two Wildlife Species Assessment Meetings in this reporting year (October, 2012 to September 2013) from November 25 to November 30, 2012 and from April 28 to May 3, 2013. During the current reporting period, COSEWIC assessed the status or reviewed the classification of 73 wildlife species. The wildlife species assessment results for the 2012-2013 reporting period include the following: Extinct: 0 Extirpated: 2 Endangered: 28 Threatened: 19 Special Concern: 19 Data Deficient: 4 Not at Risk: 1 Total: 73 Of the 73 wildlife species examined, COSEWIC reviewed the classification of 50 species that had been previously assessed. The review of classification for 26 of those species resulted in a confirmation of the same status as the previous assessment.

Consultation Documents

  • Consultation on Amending the List of Species under the Species at Risk Act: Terrestrial Species – December 2013 (2013-12-18)

    The Government of Canada is committed to preventing the disappearance of wildlife species at risk from our lands. As part of its strategy for realizing that commitment, on June 5, 2003, the Government of Canada proclaimed the Species at Risk Act (SARA). Attached to the Act is Schedule 1, the list of the species provided for under SARA, also called the List of Wildlife Species at Risk. Endangered or Threatened species on Schedule 1 benefit from the protection of prohibitions and recovery planning under SARA. Special Concern species benefit from its management planning. Schedule 1 has grown from the original 233 to 518 wildlife species at risk. Please submit your comments by March 23, 2014, for terrestrial species undergoing normal consultations and by October 23, 2014, for terrestrial species undergoing extended consultations. Consultation paths.

Related Information

  • Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA) Listing Plan 2016 to 2018 (2017-09-29)

    The status of wildlife species is assessed by an independent panel of expert Canadian scientists, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 149 terrestrial species were assessed as at-risk by COSEWIC between 2009 and 2016 and are eligible for listing under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) to be considered by the Governor-in-Council (GIC) on the recommendation of the Minister of the Environment: 86 species would be new additions, 54 currently listed species would be reclassified and 9 species would be updated to reflect changes in their recognized designatable units. A three-year listing plan has been developed to address all 149 terrestrial species and listing decisions for most species are anticipated by the end of 2018. Making amendments to Schedule 1 of SARA is a two-step process. The first step is for the GIC to propose an amendment through an order in council published in the Canada Gazette, Part I, for a 30-day public comment period. The second step is for the GIC to make a final decision on whether or not to make amendments to Schedule 1 of SARA, taking into consideration comments received during the 30-day public comment period. The amendments are made through an order in council published in the Canada Gazette, Part II. Both orders are accompanied by a Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement (RIAS) which presents the implications of listing the species or changing their status. Publishing this plan on the Species at Risk Public Registry is intended to provide transparency about the Government of Canada’s plan to make listing decisions under the Species at Risk Act. NOTE: The information presented below is intended to provide openness and transparency with respect to when terrestrial species might be considered for listing under Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act. It is intended to assist anyone who may wish to provide comments on such listing considerations. Given any number of factors can affect the timing of a listing decision; the Plan is subject to change. Accordingly, the Plan will be periodically updated.
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