Riverine Clubtail Great Lakes Plains population
Scientific Name: Stylurus amnicola
Taxonomy Group: Arthropods
COSEWIC Range: Ontario
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: November 2012
COSEWIC Status: Endangered
COSEWIC Status Criteria: B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)
COSEWIC Reason for Designation: This dragonfly population is restricted to two small creeks that flow into Lake Erie. The impact of a variety of threats was determined to be very high, suggesting that there may be a substantial decline over the next decade. The threats include water withdrawal from the streams, pollution, and invasive alien species of fish that would feed on dragonfly larvae.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Endangered in November 2012.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Endangered
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2018-02-02
Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.
Riverine Clubtail (Stylurus amnicola) is a dragonfly in the clubtail family. Members of the genus Stylurus are referred to as “hanging clubtails” for their habit of hanging vertically when perched on streamside vegetation. It is a small (47-49 mm long), slender dragonfly, with a prominent club at the end of the abdomen. The front of the thorax has a distinctive three-pointed star that distinguishes this species from other hanging clubtails. The abdomen is blackish with small yellow spots along the top and prominent yellow spots on the sides near the tip. Females have yellow patches along the sides of the abdomen. The hind legs are mostly black. The larvae are distinguished by their small size and shape of the abdominal segments and mouth parts. This species may serve as a useful environmental indicator. [Updated by COSEWIC- Nov. 2012]
Distribution and Population
Riverine Clubtail occurs in eastern North America from southern Quebec and southern Manitoba south to southern Louisiana. The Canadian range of Riverine Clubtailmay be divided into three separate regions: (1) the Ottawa River and St. Lawrence River valleys of Quebec; (2) Central north shore of Lake Erie in Ontario and (3) southeastern Manitoba. The population size and trends are unknown. [Updated by COSEWIC- Nov. 2012]
Riverine Clubtail larvae inhabit a wide variety of riverine habitats ranging in size from the St. Lawrence River to small creeks. Larvae are typically found in microhabitats with slow to moderate flow and fine sand or silt substrates where they burrow into the stream bed. Adults disperse from the river after emerging and feed in the forest canopy and other riparian vegetation. As with other dragonfly species that inhabit rivers and streams, water regulation, pollution and invasive species may be impairing their habitat. [Updated by COSEWIC- Nov. 2012]
Larvae spend most of their time buried just below the surface of the sediment in the bottom of the stream, breathing through the tip of the abdomen raised above the sediments. The larval stage probably lasts for two or more years prior to emergence in late June or early July. Newly emerged adults disperse inland to avoid predation until their exoskeleton hardens and they are able to fly well. Adults fly between mid July and early August, with peak numbers in mid July. Males cruise swiftly over the stream until they find a female. After mating, the female deposits eggs in the current of the open stream. Larvae obtain prey from the sediments using their prehensile labium. Adults are probably generalist and opportunist predators, feeding on small flying insects. Predators on Riverine Clubtail probably include fishes, birds, frogs, various mammals and insects including other dragonflies. [Updated by COSEWIC- Nov. 2012]
The major threats to the Riverine Clubtail in Ontario, where threats are best understood, include water withdrawal for irrigation, water pollution, and invasive species. There is also increasing development resulting in habitat loss and increasing susceptibility to predators which are supported by human population including raccoons, and many kinds of birds for which human occupation provides both nesting and foraging sites. Some of these threats are also present in Quebec and Manitoba, but to a lesser extent. [Updated by COSEWIC- Nov. 2012]
The Riverine Clubtail, Great Lakes Plains population, is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.
Provincial and Territorial Protection
Status of Recovery Planning
Recovery Strategies :
Name Recovery Strategy for the Riverine Clubtail (Stylurus amnicola), Great Lakes Plains population, in Canada
Status Final posting on SAR registry
PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.
7 record(s) found.
- COSEWIC Status Reports (1 record(s) found.)
- Response Statements (1 record(s) found.)
- Recovery Strategies (1 record(s) found.)
- Orders (1 record(s) found.)
- COSEWIC Annual Reports (1 record(s) found.)
- Consultation Documents (1 record(s) found.)
- Related Information (1 record(s) found.)
COSEWIC Status Reports
COSEWIC Annual Reports
COSEWIC Annual Report – 2012-2013 (2013-09-24)Under Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA), the foremost function of COSEWIC is to “assess the status of each wildlife species considered by COSEWIC to be at risk and, as part of the assessment, identify existing and potential threats to the species”. COSEWIC held two Wildlife Species Assessment Meetings in this reporting year (October, 2012 to September 2013) from November 25 to November 30, 2012 and from April 28 to May 3, 2013. During the current reporting period, COSEWIC assessed the status or reviewed the classification of 73 wildlife species. The wildlife species assessment results for the 2012-2013 reporting period include the following: Extinct: 0 Extirpated: 2 Endangered: 28 Threatened: 19 Special Concern: 19 Data Deficient: 4 Not at Risk: 1 Total: 73 Of the 73 wildlife species examined, COSEWIC reviewed the classification of 50 species that had been previously assessed. The review of classification for 26 of those species resulted in a confirmation of the same status as the previous assessment.