Species Profile

Lilliput

Scientific Name: Toxolasma parvum
Taxonomy Group: Molluscs
COSEWIC Range: Ontario
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: May 2013
COSEWIC Status: Endangered
COSEWIC Status Criteria: B2ab(iii)
COSEWIC Reason for Designation: This species has a fairly restricted range in Canada, confined to tributaries of Lake St. Clair, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario. Populations once found in the open Canadian waters of Lake St. Clair, Lake Erie and the Detroit River have disappeared. Overall, the species has lost 40% of its former range in Canada. The invasion of freshwater habitat by the exotic Zebra and Quagga mussels, combined with pollution from urban development and sedimentation are the main cause of populations disappearing and the range shrinking.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Endangered in May 2013.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Endangered
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2019-08-08

Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.

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Lilliput Photo 1

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Description

The Lilliput (Toxolasma parvum) is one of Canada’s 54 freshwater mussel species. It is a rare and small mussel, typically less than 4 centimeters and occasionally reaching sizes of 5.5 centimeters in length. It is the only mussel of the genus Toxolasma found in Canada and can be recognized by the following features: Thick shell that is elliptical to oval in shape; dull, smooth and cloth-like outer shell; front (anterior) end is rounded and the back (posterior) end is rounded on males, squared on females; shell colour is brown to brownish-black and may have green rays on the dorsal slope; inside of shell (nacre) is shiny and silvery-white or bluish-white; raised part at the top of the shell (beak) is sculptured with 4–6 heavy concentric ridges, and is slightly raised above the hinge line; and hinge teeth are fully developed, but compressed (thin serrated pseudocardinal teeth and long, thin and straight lateral teeth).

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Distribution and Population

Lilliput is only found in North America, where it is widely distributed from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes basin. In Canada, Lilliput was historically found in southern Ontario in the drainages of lakes St. Clair, Erie and Ontario. No longer found in over 40 percent of its historical range, Lilliput is now restricted to the Sydenham River, lower Thames River (Baptiste Creek), Ruscom River, Belle River, Grand River, Welland River, Jordan Harbour and Hamilton Harbour (Sunfish Pond, Cootes Paradise and Grindstone Creek). In the United States, Lilliput can still found in 22 states, but is considered possibly extirpated from Georgia and New York, critically imperiled in Pennsylvania, endangered in Michigan, and vulnerable in Indiana and Wisconsin.

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Habitat

Lilliput is found in a variety of habitats, from small to large rivers to wetlands and the shallows of lakes, ponds and reservoirs. It prefers to burrow in soft substrates (river and lake bottoms) made of mud, sand, silt or fine gravel.

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Biology

Lilliput has a short lifespan, living to a maximum age of 12 years. It can be hermaphroditic (each mussel features both male and female gonads). Spawning occurs from June to August and glochidia (mussel larvae) are released in July of the following year. Like most other freshwater mussels, the glochidia are parasitic on fishes. In this case, adult mussels lure in a fish with worm-like filaments on their shells and release mucous packages of glochidia disguised as food. When the fish takes a bite, the package ruptures, releasing the glochidia to attach to their host as they flow through its gills. Here they will remain until they reach their juvenile, free-living stage and drop off to burrow in the substrate below. Adult Lilliput essentially stays in one location (i.e., sessile), and may move only a few metres along the substrate the entire rest of its life. The likely host fishes for this mussel in Canada are the Johnny Darter (Etheostoma nigrum), Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) and Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Like all species of freshwater mussels, Lilliput filters its food from the water. Bacteria and algae are its primary food sources.

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Threats

Serious threats facing remaining Lilliput include habitat loss and the increasing pollution of the waters where they live and feed. Municipal, agricultural and industrial activities can result in higher levels of sediment, nutrients and contaminants that clog mussel gills, disrupt breathing, movement and reproduction, and degrade habitat quality. Other possible threats include habitat destruction, and even mussel removal, by riverbed dredging for transportation and shipping purposes, as well as continued residential and commercial development and dam construction along Lilliput habitat. Invasive Zebra and Quagga mussels can colonize on the Lilliput in large numbers, restricting their feeding, breathing, moving and reproduction. The invasive Round Goby may also out-compete the Lilliput for prey, as well as competing with its host fishes.

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Protection

Federal Protection

The Lilliput is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

In Canada, this species is currently under consideration for listing as Endangered under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available online at AquaticSpeciesAtRisk.ca or on the SARA Registry at SaraRegistry.gc.ca.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.

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Other Protection or Status

Several mussel species are protected under Canada’s Species at Risk Act and the Ontario Endangered Species Act, 2007 including: Round Hickorynut, Kidneyshell, Northern Riffleshell, Snuffbox, Round Pigtoe, Salamander Mussel, Rayed Bean and Wavy-rayed Lampmussel. The Lilliput may therefore, benefit indirectly from protection afforded to these species or by actions implemented (e.g., research, stewardship and outreach) under the direction of the above recovery strategies. Additionally, the collection of freshwater mussels requires a collection permit issued by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources under authority of the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act.

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Documents

PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

22 record(s) found.

COSEWIC Status Reports

Response Statements

  • Response Statement - Lilliput (2013-12-18)

    This species has a fairly restricted range in Canada, confined to tributaries of Lake St. Clair, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario. Populations once found in the open Canadian waters of Lake St. Clair, Lake Erie and the Detroit River have disappeared. Overall, the species has lost 40% of its former range in Canada. The invasion of freshwater habitat by the exotic Zebra and Quagga mussels, combined with pollution from urban development and sedimentation are the main cause of populations disappearing and the range shrinking.

Recovery Strategies

  • Recovery Strategy and Action Plan for Lilliput (Toxolasma parvum) in Canada (2020-09-24)

    Lilliput was listed as Endangered under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) in 2019. In 2013, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) assessed Lilliput as Endangered. This recovery strategy and action plan is considered one in a series of documents for this species that are linked and should be taken into consideration together, including the (COSEWIC) status report (COSEWIC 2013) and the recovery potential assessment (Fisheries and Oceans Canada [DFO] 2014). Recovery has been determined to be biologically and technically feasible.

Orders

  • Order Amending Schedule 1 to the Species at Risk Act (Volume 153, Number 17, 2019) (2019-08-21)

    Biodiversity is rapidly declining at all scales, from local to global, as a result of a variety of human activities that increase the rates of species extinction. Current extinction rates are estimated to be between 1 000 and 10 000 times higher than the natural background rate. Higher species diversity positively supports healthy and productive ecosystems that are more resilient to disturbances, and, given the interdependency of species, a loss of biodiversity can lead to a declining resilience of ecosystem functions and services (e.g. natural processes such as pest control, pollination, coastal wave attenuation, pharmaceutical products, temperature regulation and carbon fixing). These services are vital to the health of all Canadians and are important for Canada’s economic well-being. Biodiversity loss can therefore result in adverse, irreversible and broad-ranging effects on Canadians.

COSEWIC Annual Reports

  • COSEWIC Annual Report – 2012-2013 (2013-09-24)

    Under Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA), the foremost function of COSEWIC is to “assess the status of each wildlife species considered by COSEWIC to be at risk and, as part of the assessment, identify existing and potential threats to the species”. COSEWIC held two Wildlife Species Assessment Meetings in this reporting year (October, 2012 to September 2013) from November 25 to November 30, 2012 and from April 28 to May 3, 2013. During the current reporting period, COSEWIC assessed the status or reviewed the classification of 73 wildlife species. The wildlife species assessment results for the 2012-2013 reporting period include the following: Extinct: 0 Extirpated: 2 Endangered: 28 Threatened: 19 Special Concern: 19 Data Deficient: 4 Not at Risk: 1 Total: 73 Of the 73 wildlife species examined, COSEWIC reviewed the classification of 50 species that had been previously assessed. The review of classification for 26 of those species resulted in a confirmation of the same status as the previous assessment.

Permits and Related Agreements

  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-­PCAA-­00045 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit is to sample municipal drains for the purpose of classifying unrated drains, following the Classifying Ontario Municipal Drains Protocol (Fisheries and Oceans Canada). As fisheries assessments have not been previously conducted on many unrated municipal drains, the species listed on the permit may inhabit these drains and may be captured incidentally during the course of the work. The activities authorized by the permit include: 1. The incidental capture of the species listed on the permit from the locations listed on the permit using seine nets and/or backpack electrofishing units. Within each sample site, approximately 40 m or 10x the wetted width of the watercourse will be sampled for fishes using either a backpack electrofisher, or a seine net depending on habitat suitability. Within the sample site, block nets will be set up and a minimum of three passes will be completed; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Vouchers will be collected for larger fishes and all mussels using digital cameras; however, some vouchers of smaller fishes may be retained, in 10% formalin or 95% ethanol, to confirm identification (if digital vouchers cannot be collected); and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-HCAA-01439 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-05-04)

    The project involves structural repairs to the deck, and patch repairs of abutments of two bridges located on the North Sydenham River. Work will be conducted with a turbidity curtain installed, and after a mussel and fish salvage occurs. Rip rap scour protection will be placed below the high water mark with an instream footprint of 35 m2 at each site. The activities authorized by this permit that may cause incidental harm to Lilliput (Toxolasma parvum), Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida) (Ontario populations), and Pugnose Minnow (Opsopoeodus emiliae) are the incidental capture of Lilliput during site isolation and mussel relocation operations, and the incidental capture of Eastern Sand Darter and Pugnose Minnow during site isolation and fish relocation operations.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00026 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit include: 1. To conduct quantitative and semi-quantitative surveys for species at risk mussels at sites within locations across southern Ontario (Detroit, Grand, Ottawa, Sydenham, Thames, St. Lawrence River watersheds, Lake St. Clair tributaries, Walpole Island First Nations/St. Clair River delta) to track changes in species and habitat over time, and evaluate recovery efforts; 2. Depending on species detected during qualitative and semi-quantitative sampling, to obtain genetic samples for further analyses; 3. To conduct a morphometric analyses on animals collected during quantitative and/or semi-quantitative sampling; 4. Depending on species detected during qualitative and semi-quantitative sampling, to evaluate reproductive condition of animals found; and, 5. To tag some individuals when necessary for future identification. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of all mussel species listed on the permit, via quadrat sampling or timed searches, from sites listed on the permit. For quantitative sampling, substrates in 1 m x 1 m quadrats will be excavated by hand. For all sampling, any mussels found will be identified to species and measured; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, morphometric analyses, tagging, obtaining genetic samples, etc.). All mussels will be returned alive to the locations they were found; and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00027 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit are to conduct fish and mussel surveys in the St. Clair River watershed and the Lake St. Clair watershed. Baseline data collected will be used to assist in future project proposals and inquiries. Species at risk listed on the permit may be captured during surveys. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of any of the species listed on the permit from the watersheds listed on the permit. Sampling will be completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit, seine net, or minnow traps where necessary, using the Ontario Stream Assessment Protocol (OSAP). Mussel surveys will adhere to Mackie et al. (2008); 2. The handling of any of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing. Fishes will be identified, counted, and released alive with the exception of some smaller fishes that may be retained to confirm identification. All mussels will be returned alive to the locations they were found; and, 3. The possession and transport of any species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00031 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit include the study of: 1. Post-excystment juvenile Unionid mussel dispersion; 2. The effects of multiple stressors on Unionid mussel suspension feeding; 3. The effect of shear stress on juvenile Unionid settlement; 4. The association between flow velocity and shell orientations and morphometrics; and, 5. The physical conditions present in mussel beds. The species listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during this work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The incidental capture of species listed on the permit from the Grand, Sydenham, and Thames rivers. Juvenile Studies: Excavations along a transect across the river will be undertaken using an airlift system that will vacuum up the fine sediments and any juvenile mussels in a 12 x 12 cm quadrat. The excavated material will be carefully processed through a series of sieves to define size classes of sediment. Feeding Studies: Species will be collected via three possible methods: (1) "raccooning" and excavation; (2) manual sieving through the sediment; and, (3) visual searching (depending water clarity); 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, marking, and photograph). Any juveniles found will be measured, photographed, returned to their original place along the transect, along with the sediment. All mussel species at risk, once identified, are measured, marked, and returned to the spot where they were collected. The marking is completed with a metal probe that is used to etch the periostracum of the shell (with a unique number), which does not harm the mussel; and, 3. The possession and transport of dead specimens of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00043 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit is to test and apply the gear (i.e., mussel brail) required to delineate areas of protected habitat for species at risk mussels in non-wadeable habitats. The species listed on the permit may be captured in the course of the work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the mussels listed on the permit using a mussel brail within the Grand River. Surveys at randomly distributed sampling sites (50 sites total) will be done by towing a brail along multiple (4 to 5) transects. Tow length (50 or 100 m) will be set after pilot trials during the first week of sampling; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, and photograph). Digital vouchers will be taken of any mussels captured; all mussels will be returned alive to the location of capture; and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00046 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit is to conduct habitat assessments and survey for species at risk mussels in areas where in-water works are proposed, at various locations across Ontario. The species listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during the course of this work. The activities authorized by the permit include: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit via visual search using viewing boxes and raccooning, from various waterbodies throughout Ontario; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and photographing; and, 3. The possession and transport of dead specimens/shells/valves of any of the species listed on the permit found during the course of the sampling.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00055), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit are to better understand and document the native freshwater mussel community present in the waters adjacent to Royal Botanical Gardens lands. Lilliput (Toxolasma parvum) may be encountered while mussel surveys are being conducted. The activities authorized by the permit include the incidental capture and handling of Lilliput during shoreline surveys, and the possession and transport of dead specimens/shells/valves of Lilliput found during the course of the shoreline surveys. Any live Lilliput encountered will be returned to the water immediately.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00007 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-03-16)

    Under the guidance of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), the activity involves: 1) establishing a network of permanent monitoring stations throughout historical and present ranges of the Sydenham River, to permit tracking of fish populations, analysis of trends and patterns, and permit the evaluation of recovery actions; 2) establishing and implementing a habitat monitoring program that includes water quality and substrate components. The monitoring program will provide insight into the significance of threat factors. Targeted species at risk fish sampling will be conducted in historically occupied habitat (river reaches in the vicinity of Florence and Alvinston), as well as other potentially suitable habitats, using sampling techniques proven to detect species at risk fishes; and, 3) starting in 2020 and following the guidance of DFO, conduct a spatial pattern study of mussel distribution by completing a systematic survey in a specific reach (or reaches) in order to better understand population abundance/density and species-to-habitat relationships in the Sydenham The St. Clair Region Conservation Authority (SCRCA) will collect fishes using a backpack electrofishing unit, seine net, or minnow traps where necessary, using the Ontario Stream Assessment Protocol. Mussel surveys will adhere to protocol found in Mackie et al. (2008). Fifteen sites will be monitored according to the Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network Protocol. At each site, this protocol involves using the travelling kick and sweep method for three minutes, covering an area of about 10 m2 at three transects (optimally riffle-pool-riffle) within a stream meander wavelength. The sites are selected to represent the main watercourse. Each of the small watercourses has at least one sampling site.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00009 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-04-03)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit are: 1. To conduct quantitative and semi-quantitative surveys for species at risk mussels to track changes in species and habitat over time, and evaluate recovery efforts. Surveys will be conducted in the St. Clair River and tributaries, the Sydenham, Thames, Grand, and Ottawa rivers, with other locations in lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario, which may be sampled in the event the need arises. Drift samples may be taken at a subset of sites to evaluate timing of glochidial release. Species listed on the permit may be captured during this work; 2. To hold a mussel identification workshop in late June over a two-day period. The second day will spent at a site on the Sydenham River where attendees will practice field identification skills under guidance of experienced malacologists; 3. Depending on the species detected during qualitative and semi-quantitative sampling, to obtain genetic samples for further analyses; 4. To conduct a morphometric analyses on animals collected during quantitative and/or semi-quantitative sampling; 5. Depending on the species detected during qualitative and semi-quantitative sampling, to evaluate reproductive condition of animals found; and, 6. To tag some individuals when necessary for future identification. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of all mussel species listed on the permit, via quadrat sampling or timed searches, from the locations listed above. For quantitative sampling, substrates in 1 x 1 m quadrats will be excavated by hand. For all sampling, any mussels found will be identified to species and measured; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, morphometric analyses, tagging, and obtaining genetic samples); and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00012 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-04-03)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit are to test and apply the gear (i.e., mussel brail) required to delineate areas of protected habitat for species at risk mussels in non-wadeable habitats in the Sydenham, Thames, and Grand rivers. The species listed on the permit may be captured in the course of the work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the mussels listed on the permit using a mussel brail within the Sydenham, Thames, and Grand rivers. Surveys at randomly distributed sampling sites (25 sites in each river) will be done by towing a brail along three transects. Individual brail tows, each representing a different length (50, 75, or 100 m) will be done at each site; 2. The handling of the species listed on this permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, and photograph). Digital vouchers will be taken of any mussels captured; all mussels will be returned alive to the location of capture; and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on this permit killed incidentally.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00024 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-06-18)

    The objectives of the activity covered by the permit are to survey mussels, as part of a Master's project, to better understand mussel interactions with other aquatic species. The species listed on the permit may be captured during this work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit via timed search or quadrat surveys from the Sydenham River watershed and Lake St. Clair delta; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). All mussels will be returned alive to the location of capture following processing; and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00036 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-07-23)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit are to conduct fish community surveys in the lower Thames River and its tributaries, within the jurisdiction of the Lower Thames River Conservation Authority, in Ontario. The species listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during this work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit via seining (fishes) and quadrat/visual surveys (mussels), from the lower Thames River watershed; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Any mussels captured will be released alive at the location of capture; and, 3. The possession and transport of the species listed on this permit killed incidentally as a result of sampling and/or processing or for vouchering purposes (fishes only).
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#21-PCAA-00009 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2021-03-10)

    The objectives of the activities covered by this permit include: 1. Establishing a network of permanent monitoring stations throughout the Sydenham River, in Ontario, to permit tracking of fish populations, analysis of trends and patterns, and permit the evaluation of recovery actions; 2. To conduct a spatial pattern study of mussel distribution by completing a systematic survey in a specific reach (or reaches) in order to better understand population abundance and density, and species to habitat relationships in the Sydenham River; and, 3. To conduct benthic sampling at fifteen sites according to the Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network Protocol. The mussels and fishes listed on the permit may be encountered incidentally during the work. The activities authorized by this permit consist of: 1. The capture of any of the species listed on the permit from the St. Clair River watershed and/or the Lake St. Clair watershed. Sampling will be completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit, seine net, or minnow traps where necessary, using the Ontario Stream Assessment Protocol. Mussel surveys will adhere to Mackie et al. (2008). Benthic surveys will employ the travelling kick-and-sweep method for three minutes, covering an area of about 10 m at three transects (optimally riffle-pool-riffle) within a stream meander wavelength; 2. The handling of any of the species listed on this permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, and photograph). Fishes will be identified, counted, and released alive, with the exception of some smaller fishes that may be retained to confirm identification. All mussels will be returned alive to the locations they were found; and, 3. The possession and transport of any species listed on this permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#21-PCAA-00022 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2021-05-05)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit include: 1. Conducting fish and mussel community surveys within locations in the lower Thames River watershed (from Delaware, ON, to the mouth), lower Thames River tributaries, Rondeau Bay and tributaries, McGeachy Pond, Lake Erie tributaries (between Two Creeks and Talbot Creek), and Lake St. Clair tributaries (between the mouth of the Thames River to Boyle Drain); and, 2. To conduct targeted seining surveys for Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida) (Ontario populations) within the Thames River. The 19 species at risk (SAR) listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during this work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the species listed on this permit via seining (fishes) and quadrat or visual surveys (mussels), from the locations listed previously; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Any mussels captured will be released alive at the location of capture; and, 3. The possession and transport of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally as a result of sampling and/or processing, or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#21-PCAA-00023 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2021-05-05)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit are: 1. To conduct quantitative and semi-quantitative surveys in the St. Clair River and tributaries, the Sydenham, Thames, and Grand rivers, and lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario, for species at risk (SAR) mussels (Fawnsfoot [Truncilla donaciformis], Hickorynut [Obovaria olivaria], Kidneyshell [Ptychobranchus fasciolaris], Lilliput [Toxolasma parvum], Northern Riffleshell [Epioblasma rangiana], Rayed Bean [Villosa fabalis], Round Pigtoe [Pleurobema sintoxia], Round Hickorynut [Obovaria subrotunda], Salamander Mussel [Simpsonaias ambigua], Snuffbox [Epioblasma triquetra], and Threehorn Wartyback [Obliquaria reflexa]), to track changes in species and habitat over time, and evaluate recovery efforts. Drift samples may be taken at a subset of sites to evaluate the timing of glochidial release; 2. To hold a mussel identification workshop in late June over a two-day period. The second day of will be spent at a site on the Sydenham River where attendees will practice field identification skills under the guidance of experienced malacologists; 3. Depending on the species detected during qualitative and semi-quantitative sampling, to obtain genetic samples for further analyses; 4.To conduct a morphometric analyses on animals collected during quantitative and/or semi-quantitative sampling; and, 5. To tag some individuals when necessary for future identification. The aforementioned species may be captured during this work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of all mussel species listed previously, via quadrat sampling or timed searches, from the locations listed previously. For quantitative sampling, substrates in 1 m x 1 m quadrats will be excavated by hand. For all sampling, any mussels found will be identified to species and measured; 2. The handling of SAR for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, morphometric analyses, tagging, and obtaining genetic samples); and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed previously killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.

Consultation Documents

  • Lilliput - Consultations on listing under the Species at Risk Act (2014-07-15)

    The Lilliput has recently been assessed as “Endangered” by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Before deciding whether this species will be protected under the Species at Risk Act, Fisheries and Oceans Canada would like your opinion, comments and suggestions regarding the possible ecological, cultural and economic impacts of listing or not listing it.
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