Species Profile

Threehorn Wartyback

Scientific Name: Obliquaria reflexa
Taxonomy Group: Molluscs
COSEWIC Range: Ontario
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: May 2013
COSEWIC Status: Threatened
COSEWIC Status Criteria: B2ab(iii)
COSEWIC Reason for Designation: This rare species historically occurred in the Great Lakes drainages including Lake St. Clair, western Lake Erie, and the Grand, Thames, and Detroit rivers. The species has not been found since 1992 in Lake St. Clair and the Detroit River and may be extirpated there due largely to the impacts of Zebra and Quagga mussels. It was last recorded from the Canadian side of Lake Erie in 1997. Pollution (sediment loading, nutrient loading, contaminants and toxic substances) related to both urban and agricultural activities represents a high and continuing threat at the three remaining riverine locations.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Threatened in May 2013.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Threatened
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2019-08-08

Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.

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Quick Links: | Description | Habitat | Biology | Threats | Protection | Other Protection or Status | National Recovery Program | Documents

Description

The Threehorn Wartyback (Obliquaria reflexa) is one of Canada’s 54 freshwater mussel species. It is a rare mussel, only found in North America and the only member of the genus Obliquaria found in Canada. It is characterized by the following features: Medium-sized mussel, with an average length of 4 centimeters; thick shell is circular to triangular in shape; front end of the shell (“anterior”) is rounded, while the back of the shell (“posterior”) is bluntly pointed; a single row of 2–5 large knobs or “horns” across the tops of both shells; raised part of the shell (“beak”) is finely sculptured and raised above the hinge line; shell colour can be green, tan or brown; numerous thin rays, or one wide green ray along its horns, may or may not be present; and inside of the shell (“nacre”) is pearly white and shiny near the posterior.

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Distribution and Population

The Threehorn Wartyback is found only in North America, where it is broadly distributed from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes. In the United States, the Threehorn Wartyback is widely distributed across 21 central states throughout the Great Lakes, Mississippi River and Mobile River drainages. It is generally in decline throughout the Great Lakes drainage and possibly lost from Pennsylvania, imperiled in Ohio and vulnerable in Indiana and Wisconsin. In Canada, this mussel was historically known only in Ontario, in Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, western Lake Erie and the Sydenham, Thames and Grand rivers. It is now believed to be lost from the Great Lakes, though small populations remain in the Sydenham, Thames and Grand rivers.

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Habitat

The Threehorn Wartyback prefers large river habitats with moderate currents and firm bottoms (substrates) of gravel, sand and mud. It is typically found at depths of up to 6–7 metres.

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Biology

Considered a short-term brooder, Threehorn Wartyback mussels spawn in the spring and the larvae (glochidia) are released by the end of July. Like most other freshwater mussels, the glochidia are parasitic on fishes (i.e., the glochidia attach to the gills of a host fish until they reach their juvenile, free-living stage and drop off to burrow in the substrate below). Adult Threehorn Wartyback are essentially sessile and may move only a few meters along the substrate for the remainder of their lives. This mussel is a moderately long-lived species, with some individuals living up to 18 years. Like all species of freshwater mussels, the Threehorn Wartyback filters its food from the water. Bacteria and algae are its primary food sources.

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Threats

Remaining Threehorn Wartyback mussels are significantly threatened by pollution related to urban and agricultural activities. Specifically, it is the sediment loading that leads to the clogging of the mussel’s gill structures, while nutrient loading and contaminants degrade water quality and overall habitat. Infestations of aquatic invasive species also remain a threat. Specifically, the Zebra Mussel is largely responsible for the loss of Threehorn Wartyback populations within the Great Lakes and connecting channels. By attaching to the Threehorn Wartyback by the hundreds, Zebra Mussels interfere with the native mussel’s ability to feed, move, breathe and reproduce. The Zebra Mussel continues to similarly threaten the remaining riverine populations of the Threehorn Wartyback. Additionally, Round Gobies are currently impacting native fish communities, including fish hosts that support native mussels. Human recreational activities, such as driving all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) over fragile mussel beds in the Sydenham River, are also another known threat.

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Protection

Federal Protection

The Threehorn Wartyback is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

In Canada, this species is currently under consideration for listing as Threatened under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about the SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available online at AquaticSpeciesAtRisk.ca or on the SARA Registry.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.

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Other Protection or Status

If listed under the SARA, a recovery strategy and action plan will be developed to prevent the loss of the Threehorn Wartyback in Canada, involving research, land and water stewardship, monitoring and awareness activities. Critical habitat for this species will also be identified under the SARA, allowing for greater protection and recovery of its habitat.

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Documents

PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

24 record(s) found.

COSEWIC Status Reports

  • COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Threehorn Wartyback Obliquaria reflexa in Canada (2014-01-03)

    Threehorn Wartyback is a medium-sized freshwater mussel generally reaching 40 mm in adult length (maximum length of 55 and 80 mm reported in Canada and the United States, respectively). The shell is thick, circular to triangular in shape, rounded on the anterior end and bluntly pointed on the posterior. The most obvious characteristic of the Threehorn Wartyback is the single row of 2 - 5 large knobs or “horns” that give rise to the common name of this species. The Threehorn Wartyback is the only member of the genus Obliquaria that occurs in Canada.

Response Statements

  • Response Statement - Threehorn Wartyback (2013-12-18)

    This rare species historically occurred in the Great Lakes drainages including Lake St. Clair, western Lake Erie, and the Grand, Thames, and Detroit rivers. The species has not been found since 1992 in Lake St. Clair and the Detroit River and may be extirpated there due largely to the impacts of Zebra and Quagga mussels. It was last recorded from the Canadian side of Lake Erie in 1997. Pollution (sediment loading, nutrient loading, contaminants and toxic substances) related to both urban and agricultural activities represents a high and continuing threat at the three remaining riverine locations.

Recovery Strategies

  • Recovery Strategy and Action Plan for the Fawnsfoot (Truncilla donaciformis) and Threehorn Wartyback (Obliquaria reflexa) in Canada (2020-09-24)

    The Fawnsfoot and Threehorn Wartyback were listed as Endangered and Threatened, respectively, under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) in August 2019. This multispecies recovery strategy and action plan is considered one in a series of documents for these species that are linked and should be taken into consideration together, including: the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) status reports for Fawnsfoot (2008) and Threehorn Wartyback (2013); and, the recovery potential assessments for the Fawnsfoot (2011) and Threehorn Wartyback (2014). Recovery for these species has been determined to be biologically and technically feasible. Due to technical glitch that led to temporary loss of access, the public comment period has been extended for two weeks.

Orders

  • Order Amending Schedule 1 to the Species at Risk Act (Volume 153, Number 17, 2019) (2019-08-21)

    Biodiversity is rapidly declining at all scales, from local to global, as a result of a variety of human activities that increase the rates of species extinction. Current extinction rates are estimated to be between 1 000 and 10 000 times higher than the natural background rate. Higher species diversity positively supports healthy and productive ecosystems that are more resilient to disturbances, and, given the interdependency of species, a loss of biodiversity can lead to a declining resilience of ecosystem functions and services (e.g. natural processes such as pest control, pollination, coastal wave attenuation, pharmaceutical products, temperature regulation and carbon fixing). These services are vital to the health of all Canadians and are important for Canada’s economic well-being. Biodiversity loss can therefore result in adverse, irreversible and broad-ranging effects on Canadians.

COSEWIC Annual Reports

  • COSEWIC Annual Report – 2012-2013 (2013-09-24)

    Under Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA), the foremost function of COSEWIC is to “assess the status of each wildlife species considered by COSEWIC to be at risk and, as part of the assessment, identify existing and potential threats to the species”. COSEWIC held two Wildlife Species Assessment Meetings in this reporting year (October, 2012 to September 2013) from November 25 to November 30, 2012 and from April 28 to May 3, 2013. During the current reporting period, COSEWIC assessed the status or reviewed the classification of 73 wildlife species. The wildlife species assessment results for the 2012-2013 reporting period include the following: Extinct: 0 Extirpated: 2 Endangered: 28 Threatened: 19 Special Concern: 19 Data Deficient: 4 Not at Risk: 1 Total: 73 Of the 73 wildlife species examined, COSEWIC reviewed the classification of 50 species that had been previously assessed. The review of classification for 26 of those species resulted in a confirmation of the same status as the previous assessment.

Permits and Related Agreements

  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00026 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit include: 1. To conduct quantitative and semi-quantitative surveys for species at risk mussels at sites within locations across southern Ontario (Detroit, Grand, Ottawa, Sydenham, Thames, St. Lawrence River watersheds, Lake St. Clair tributaries, Walpole Island First Nations/St. Clair River delta) to track changes in species and habitat over time, and evaluate recovery efforts; 2. Depending on species detected during qualitative and semi-quantitative sampling, to obtain genetic samples for further analyses; 3. To conduct a morphometric analyses on animals collected during quantitative and/or semi-quantitative sampling; 4. Depending on species detected during qualitative and semi-quantitative sampling, to evaluate reproductive condition of animals found; and, 5. To tag some individuals when necessary for future identification. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of all mussel species listed on the permit, via quadrat sampling or timed searches, from sites listed on the permit. For quantitative sampling, substrates in 1 m x 1 m quadrats will be excavated by hand. For all sampling, any mussels found will be identified to species and measured; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, morphometric analyses, tagging, obtaining genetic samples, etc.). All mussels will be returned alive to the locations they were found; and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00027 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit are to conduct fish and mussel surveys in the St. Clair River watershed and the Lake St. Clair watershed. Baseline data collected will be used to assist in future project proposals and inquiries. Species at risk listed on the permit may be captured during surveys. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of any of the species listed on the permit from the watersheds listed on the permit. Sampling will be completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit, seine net, or minnow traps where necessary, using the Ontario Stream Assessment Protocol (OSAP). Mussel surveys will adhere to Mackie et al. (2008); 2. The handling of any of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing. Fishes will be identified, counted, and released alive with the exception of some smaller fishes that may be retained to confirm identification. All mussels will be returned alive to the locations they were found; and, 3. The possession and transport of any species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00028 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by this permit are to conduct fish and mussel surveys in the Thames River watershed. Baseline data collected will be used to assist in future project proposals and inquiries. Species at risk listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during surveys. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The incidental capture of any of the species listed on the permit from the Thames River watershed. Fish sampling will be completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit. Mussel surveys will adhere to Mackie et al. (2008); 2. The handling of any of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing. Fishes will be identified, counted, and released alive with the exception of some smaller fishes that may be retained to confirm identification. All mussels will be returned alive to the locations they were found; and, 3. The possession and transport of any species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00031 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit include the study of: 1. Post-excystment juvenile Unionid mussel dispersion; 2. The effects of multiple stressors on Unionid mussel suspension feeding; 3. The effect of shear stress on juvenile Unionid settlement; 4. The association between flow velocity and shell orientations and morphometrics; and, 5. The physical conditions present in mussel beds. The species listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during this work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The incidental capture of species listed on the permit from the Grand, Sydenham, and Thames rivers. Juvenile Studies: Excavations along a transect across the river will be undertaken using an airlift system that will vacuum up the fine sediments and any juvenile mussels in a 12 x 12 cm quadrat. The excavated material will be carefully processed through a series of sieves to define size classes of sediment. Feeding Studies: Species will be collected via three possible methods: (1) "raccooning" and excavation; (2) manual sieving through the sediment; and, (3) visual searching (depending water clarity); 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, marking, and photograph). Any juveniles found will be measured, photographed, returned to their original place along the transect, along with the sediment. All mussel species at risk, once identified, are measured, marked, and returned to the spot where they were collected. The marking is completed with a metal probe that is used to etch the periostracum of the shell (with a unique number), which does not harm the mussel; and, 3. The possession and transport of dead specimens of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00043 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit is to test and apply the gear (i.e., mussel brail) required to delineate areas of protected habitat for species at risk mussels in non-wadeable habitats. The species listed on the permit may be captured in the course of the work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the mussels listed on the permit using a mussel brail within the Grand River. Surveys at randomly distributed sampling sites (50 sites total) will be done by towing a brail along multiple (4 to 5) transects. Tow length (50 or 100 m) will be set after pilot trials during the first week of sampling; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, and photograph). Digital vouchers will be taken of any mussels captured; all mussels will be returned alive to the location of capture; and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PCAA-00046 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-21)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit is to conduct habitat assessments and survey for species at risk mussels in areas where in-water works are proposed, at various locations across Ontario. The species listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during the course of this work. The activities authorized by the permit include: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit via visual search using viewing boxes and raccooning, from various waterbodies throughout Ontario; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and photographing; and, 3. The possession and transport of dead specimens/shells/valves of any of the species listed on the permit found during the course of the sampling.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-HCAA-00518 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-04-23)

    The proponent proposes to replace the existing nine-span Argyle Street Bridge with a new five-span bridge on the Grand River in Caledonia, Ontario. The new bridge will be built adjacent to the existing bridge using temporary piers constructed on temporary work platforms (causeway pods). Five causeway pods will be installed to access the existing bridge and install the temporary and permanent bridge piers. A clear-span access bridge will be positioned between each causeway pod to allow construction equipment to move between pods. The height of the causeway pods will be designed for a one year storm event and will be in place for approximately 2-3 years. Once the new piers are constructed, the replacement bridge will be jacked up and slid onto the pier, and the causeway pods and connected bridges will be removed from the river. The proposed works were authorized by the Fisheries Act Authorization acting as a Species at Risk Act (SARA) permit 14-HCAA-01831, which covered the impacts to Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida) (Ontario populations), Mapleleaf (Quadrula quadrula) (Great Lakes - Upper St. Lawrence populations), and Round Pigtoe (Pleurobema sintoxia). Since the issuance of the authorization, the status of Mapleleaf has changed to Special Concern in the Grand River. Since its issuance, Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei), Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis), Fawnsfoot (Truncilla donaciformis), and Threehorn Wartyback (Obliquaria reflexa) were listed under SARA, and are potentially present in the Grand River. A SARA permit is required for the sub-lethal impacts that may occur during construction activities to these four additional species at risk.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00007 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-03-16)

    Under the guidance of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), the activity involves: 1) establishing a network of permanent monitoring stations throughout historical and present ranges of the Sydenham River, to permit tracking of fish populations, analysis of trends and patterns, and permit the evaluation of recovery actions; 2) establishing and implementing a habitat monitoring program that includes water quality and substrate components. The monitoring program will provide insight into the significance of threat factors. Targeted species at risk fish sampling will be conducted in historically occupied habitat (river reaches in the vicinity of Florence and Alvinston), as well as other potentially suitable habitats, using sampling techniques proven to detect species at risk fishes; and, 3) starting in 2020 and following the guidance of DFO, conduct a spatial pattern study of mussel distribution by completing a systematic survey in a specific reach (or reaches) in order to better understand population abundance/density and species-to-habitat relationships in the Sydenham The St. Clair Region Conservation Authority (SCRCA) will collect fishes using a backpack electrofishing unit, seine net, or minnow traps where necessary, using the Ontario Stream Assessment Protocol. Mussel surveys will adhere to protocol found in Mackie et al. (2008). Fifteen sites will be monitored according to the Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network Protocol. At each site, this protocol involves using the travelling kick and sweep method for three minutes, covering an area of about 10 m2 at three transects (optimally riffle-pool-riffle) within a stream meander wavelength. The sites are selected to represent the main watercourse. Each of the small watercourses has at least one sampling site.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00008 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-04-03)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit include conducting fish and mussel surveys in the Thames River watershed. Species listed on the permit may be captured incidentally. The activities authorized by this permit consist of: 1. The capture of any of the species listed from the Thames River watershed. Fish sampling will be completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit. Mussel surveys will adhere to Mackie et al. (2008); 2. The handling of any of the listed species for the purposes of identification and processing. Fishes will be identified, counted, and released alive, with the exception of some smaller fishes that may be retained to confirm identification. All mussels will be returned alive to the locations they were found; and, 3. The possession and transport of any species listed on the permit killed incidentally.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00009 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-04-03)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit are: 1. To conduct quantitative and semi-quantitative surveys for species at risk mussels to track changes in species and habitat over time, and evaluate recovery efforts. Surveys will be conducted in the St. Clair River and tributaries, the Sydenham, Thames, Grand, and Ottawa rivers, with other locations in lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario, which may be sampled in the event the need arises. Drift samples may be taken at a subset of sites to evaluate timing of glochidial release. Species listed on the permit may be captured during this work; 2. To hold a mussel identification workshop in late June over a two-day period. The second day will spent at a site on the Sydenham River where attendees will practice field identification skills under guidance of experienced malacologists; 3. Depending on the species detected during qualitative and semi-quantitative sampling, to obtain genetic samples for further analyses; 4. To conduct a morphometric analyses on animals collected during quantitative and/or semi-quantitative sampling; 5. Depending on the species detected during qualitative and semi-quantitative sampling, to evaluate reproductive condition of animals found; and, 6. To tag some individuals when necessary for future identification. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of all mussel species listed on the permit, via quadrat sampling or timed searches, from the locations listed above. For quantitative sampling, substrates in 1 x 1 m quadrats will be excavated by hand. For all sampling, any mussels found will be identified to species and measured; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, morphometric analyses, tagging, and obtaining genetic samples); and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00012 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-04-03)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit are to test and apply the gear (i.e., mussel brail) required to delineate areas of protected habitat for species at risk mussels in non-wadeable habitats in the Sydenham, Thames, and Grand rivers. The species listed on the permit may be captured in the course of the work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the mussels listed on the permit using a mussel brail within the Sydenham, Thames, and Grand rivers. Surveys at randomly distributed sampling sites (25 sites in each river) will be done by towing a brail along three transects. Individual brail tows, each representing a different length (50, 75, or 100 m) will be done at each site; 2. The handling of the species listed on this permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, and photograph). Digital vouchers will be taken of any mussels captured; all mussels will be returned alive to the location of capture; and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on this permit killed incidentally.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00024 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-06-18)

    The objectives of the activity covered by the permit are to survey mussels, as part of a Master's project, to better understand mussel interactions with other aquatic species. The species listed on the permit may be captured during this work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit via timed search or quadrat surveys from the Sydenham River watershed and Lake St. Clair delta; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). All mussels will be returned alive to the location of capture following processing; and, 3. The possession and transport of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00025 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-06-18)

    The objectives of the activity covered by the permit are to study shell morphology of freshwater mussels from various southern Ontario waterbodies, and to sample the water column in the Sydenham River to determine patterns in glochidia position in the water column. The species listed on the permit may be captured during this work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of species listed on the permit via visual search and larval nets from the Nottawasaga River, Bayfield River, Maitland River, Ausable River, Sydenham River, Thames River, and Grand River; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, and photograph). All mussels will be returned alive to the location of capture after processing, with the exception of a small number of glochidia that will retained for identification; and, 3. The possession and transport of dead specimens of any of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally or for identification purposes (glochidia).
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PCAA-00036 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-07-23)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit are to conduct fish community surveys in the lower Thames River and its tributaries, within the jurisdiction of the Lower Thames River Conservation Authority, in Ontario. The species listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during this work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the species listed on the permit via seining (fishes) and quadrat/visual surveys (mussels), from the lower Thames River watershed; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Any mussels captured will be released alive at the location of capture; and, 3. The possession and transport of the species listed on this permit killed incidentally as a result of sampling and/or processing or for vouchering purposes (fishes only).
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#21-PCAA-00009 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2021-03-10)

    The objectives of the activities covered by this permit include: 1. Establishing a network of permanent monitoring stations throughout the Sydenham River, in Ontario, to permit tracking of fish populations, analysis of trends and patterns, and permit the evaluation of recovery actions; 2. To conduct a spatial pattern study of mussel distribution by completing a systematic survey in a specific reach (or reaches) in order to better understand population abundance and density, and species to habitat relationships in the Sydenham River; and, 3. To conduct benthic sampling at fifteen sites according to the Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network Protocol. The mussels and fishes listed on the permit may be encountered incidentally during the work. The activities authorized by this permit consist of: 1. The capture of any of the species listed on the permit from the St. Clair River watershed and/or the Lake St. Clair watershed. Sampling will be completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit, seine net, or minnow traps where necessary, using the Ontario Stream Assessment Protocol. Mussel surveys will adhere to Mackie et al. (2008). Benthic surveys will employ the travelling kick-and-sweep method for three minutes, covering an area of about 10 m at three transects (optimally riffle-pool-riffle) within a stream meander wavelength; 2. The handling of any of the species listed on this permit for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, and photograph). Fishes will be identified, counted, and released alive, with the exception of some smaller fishes that may be retained to confirm identification. All mussels will be returned alive to the locations they were found; and, 3. The possession and transport of any species listed on this permit killed incidentally or for vouchering purposes.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#21-PCAA-00015 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2021-04-09)

    The objective of the activities covered by the permit is to conduct fish and mussel surveys in the Thames River watershed, in Ontario. Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei), Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida) (Ontario populations), Silver Shiner (Notropis photogenis), Fawnsfoot (Truncilla donaciformis), Kidneyshell (Ptychobranchus fasciolaris), Rayed Bean (Villosa fabalis), Round Pigtoe (Pleurobema sintoxia), and Threehorn Wartyback (Obliquaria reflexa), may be captured incidentally. The activities authorized by this permit consist of: 1. The capture of any of the species listed on the permit from the Thames River watershed. Fish sampling will be completed through the use of a backpack electrofishing unit. Mussel surveys will adhere to the methods of Mackie et al. (2008); 2. The handling of any of the species listed previously for the purposes of identification and processing (count, measure, and photograph). Fishes will be identified, counted, and released alive with the exception of some smaller fishes that may be retained to confirm identification. All mussels will be returned alive to the locations they were found; and, 3. The possession and transport of any species listed on the permit killed incidentally.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#21-PCAA-00022 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2021-05-05)

    The objectives of the activities covered by the permit include: 1. Conducting fish and mussel community surveys within locations in the lower Thames River watershed (from Delaware, ON, to the mouth), lower Thames River tributaries, Rondeau Bay and tributaries, McGeachy Pond, Lake Erie tributaries (between Two Creeks and Talbot Creek), and Lake St. Clair tributaries (between the mouth of the Thames River to Boyle Drain); and, 2. To conduct targeted seining surveys for Eastern Sand Darter (Ammocrypta pellucida) (Ontario populations) within the Thames River. The 19 species at risk (SAR) listed on the permit may be captured incidentally during this work. The activities authorized by the permit consist of: 1. The capture of the species listed on this permit via seining (fishes) and quadrat or visual surveys (mussels), from the locations listed previously; 2. The handling of the species listed on the permit for the purposes of identification (count, measure, and photograph). With the exception of vouchers that may be retained to confirm identification, all fishes will be released alive after processing. Any mussels captured will be released alive at the location of capture; and, 3. The possession and transport of the species listed on the permit killed incidentally as a result of sampling and/or processing, or for vouchering purposes.
  • >> See more Permits and Related Agreements documents

Consultation Documents

  • Threehorn Wartyback - Consultations on listing under the Species at Risk Act (2014-07-15)

    The Threehorn Wartyback has recently been assessed as “Threatened” by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Before deciding whether this species will be protected under the Species at Risk Act, Fisheries and Oceans Canada would like your opinion, comments and suggestions regarding the possible ecological, cultural and economic impacts of listing or not listing it.
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