Species Profile

Wrinkled Shingle Lichen

Scientific Name: Pannaria lurida
Taxonomy Group: Lichens
COSEWIC Range: New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: April 2016
COSEWIC Status: Threatened
COSEWIC Status Criteria: A2b
COSEWIC Reason for Designation: This lichen colonizes mature deciduous trees, most often Red Maple, and is known from 56 occurrences in the Atlantic provinces. Surveys have failed to confirm the lichen is still present in Prince Edward Island, at one of two occurrences in Newfoundland, at two of four occurrences in New Brunswick, and at several of the 49 known occurrences in Nova Scotia. Threats to this species include continuing forest harvesting leading to the removal of host trees, and the impact of climate change, leading to a reduction in the amount of suitable moist climate.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Threatened in April 2016.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Threatened
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2019-02-25

Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.

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Quick Links: | Description | Habitat | Biology | Threats | Protection | National Recovery Program | Documents

Description

The Wrinkled Shingle Lichen, Pannaria lurida, is a leafy lichen forming patches or rosettes that can be up to 10 cm across. It almost always grows on the trunks of deciduous trees. The upper surface is brownish grey and wrinkled. The photosynthetic partner is a cyanobacterium. [Updated by COSEWIC – May. 2016]

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Distribution and Population

The Wrinkled Shingle Lichen occurs in Asia, Australia, Pacific Islands, Africa, Asia and America. Three subspecies have been described. The subspecies that occurs in Canada and northeastern USA is reported to be subspecies russellii. There is a possibility that it could be a different subspecies, but no molecular work has been done to substantiate this. In Canada, the Wrinkled Shingle Lichen is known from 56 occurrences: 49 are in Nova Scotia, four are in New Brunswick, two in Newfoundland and one in Prince Edward Island. There may be undiscovered occurrences, particularly in Nova Scotia and possibly in New Brunswick or even Newfoundland. [Updated by COSEWIC – May. 2016]

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Habitat

The Wrinkled Shingle Lichen in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick colonizes mature deciduous trees, most often Red Maple that grow near, but not usually within, imperfectly drained habitats. Hence, this lichen is found on trees close to the edge of treed swamps or floodplains. The only occurrence on Prince Edward Island was on Cedar while the ones in Newfoundland are on White Spruce growing in an unusual habitat on cliffs close to the sea. [Updated by COSEWIC – May. 2016]

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Biology

Fungal fruiting bodies are frequent on the Wrinkled Shingle Lichen and provide the only specialized means of reproduction. The spores ejected from the fruit bodies need to land on the trunk of a mature tree, germinate and encounter a compatible strain of the cyanobacterium Nostoc. Once enveloped by the fungus, the cyanobacterium, as a result of its ability to photosynthesize and fix atmospheric nitrogen, supplies the fungus with both carbohydrates and nitrogen. No specialized vegetative reproductive structures, which are common on many other lichens, are produced by the Wrinkled Shingle Lichen. However, fragmentation and reattachment of thalli may provide for very local dispersal on host tree trunks. [Updated by COSEWIC – May. 2016]

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Threats

Threats calculator analysis indicated that the overall threat impact to P. lurida was “high to very high” with the major current threat being forest harvest resulting in both loss of host trees and changes in microclimate. The impact of forest harvesting for lumber, firewood, woodchips and biomass is particularly serious because this lichen typically colonizes trees after they have developed rough bark, which takes some 50 years post-harvest. The annual hardwood harvest in Nova Scotia doubled between 1990 and 2000 and is expected to continue with continued harvesting of deciduous trees. The same pattern of decline in the amount of old deciduous forest has also occurred in New Brunswick although most forestry activities are on upland mesic sites. Less serious threats to the Wrinkled Shingle Lichen are climate change, road construction, development, and pollution. A reduction in rain, longer periods of summer drought and less fog, all of which have been projected for Nova Scotia, could lead to reduced growth or death of the Wrinkled Shingle Lichen. Where road construction or development affects drainage leading to changes in humidity in surrounding or nearby woodland habitats, it may reduce growth or lead to death of the Wrinkled Shingle Lichen. Finally, this lichen is also sensitive to sulphur dioxide and acid rain. While the levels of both these have fallen in recent years, the continuing emissions may overcome the buffering capacity of the host tree bark, rendering it too acidic for this lichen to colonize. [Updated by COSEWIC – May. 2016]

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Protection

Federal Protection

The Wrinkled Shingle Lichen is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.

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Documents

PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

7 record(s) found.

COSEWIC Status Reports

Response Statements

  • Response Statement - Wrinkled Shingle Lichen (2017-01-11)

    This lichen colonizes mature deciduous trees, most often Red Maple, and is known from 56 occurrences in the Atlantic provinces. Surveys have failed to confirm the lichen is still present in Prince Edward Island, at one of two occurrences in Newfoundland, at two of four occurrences in New Brunswick, and at several of the 49 known occurrences in Nova Scotia. Threats to this species include continuing forest harvesting leading to the removal of host trees, and the impact of climate change, leading to a reduction in the amount of suitable moist climate.

Orders

  • Order Acknowledging Receipt of the Assessments Done Pursuant to Subsection 23(1) of the Act: SI/2018-40 (2018-06-13)

    Her Excellency the Governor General in Council, on the recommendation of the Minister of the Environment, acknowledges receipt, on the making of this Order, of the assessments done pursuant to subsection 23(1) of the Species at Risk Act by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) with respect to the species set out in the annexed schedule.
  • Order Amending Schedule 1 to the Species at Risk Act (Volume 153, Number 5, 2019) (2019-03-06)

    Biodiversity is rapidly declining worldwide as species become extinct. Today’s extinction rate is estimated to be between 1 000 and 10 000 times higher than the natural rate. Biodiversity is positively related to ecosystem productivity, health and resiliency (i.e. the ability of an ecosystem to respond to changes or disturbances), and, given the interdependency of species, a loss of biodiversity can lead to decreases in ecosystem function and services (e.g. natural processes such as pest control, pollination, coastal wave attenuation, temperature regulation and carbon fixing). These services are important to the health of Canadians, and also have important ties to Canada’s economy. Small changes within an ecosystem can lead to a loss of individuals and species resulting in adverse, irreversible and broad-ranging effects.

COSEWIC Annual Reports

  • COSEWIC Annual Report - 2015-2016 (2016-10-13)

    Over the past year COSEWIC re-examined the status of 25 wildlife species; of these, the majority (68%) were re-assessed at the same or lower level of risk. Of a total of 45 species assessed, seven were assigned a status of Not at Risk (two re-assessments and five new assessments). To date, and with the submission of this report, COSEWIC’s assessments now include 724 wildlife species in various risk categories, including 320 Endangered, 172 Threatened, 209 Special Concern, and 23 Extirpated (i.e., no longer found in the wild in Canada). In addition, 15 wildlife species have been assessed as Extinct, 54 wildlife species have been designated as Data Deficient, and 177 have been assessed and assigned Not at Risk status.

Consultation Documents

  • Consultation on Amending the List of Species under the Species at Risk Act: Terrestrial Species - January 2017 (2017-01-16)

    The Government of Canada is committed to preventing the disappearance of wildlife species at risk from our lands. As part of its strategy for realizing that commitment, on June 5, 2003, the Government of Canada proclaimed the Species at Risk Act (SARA). Attached to the Act is Schedule 1, the list of the species provided for under SARA, also called the List of Wildlife Species at Risk. Extirpated, Endangered and Threatened species on Schedule 1 benefit from the protection afforded by the prohibitions and from recovery planning requirements under SARA. Special Concern species benefit from its management planning requirements. Schedule 1 has grown from the original 233 to 521 wildlife species at risk. In 2016, on the recommendation of the Minister of the Environment, the Governor in Council approved listing proposals for 44 wildlife species. It is proposed that 23 species be added to Schedule 1, 18 be reclassified or have a change made to how they are defined (two wildlife species are being split into four), one species  be removed from Schedule 1, and another two species not be added. Listing proposals were published in Canada Gazette, part I for a 30-day public comment period and final listing decisions for all 44 species are expected in the first half of 2017.Please submit your comments byMay 11, 2017, for terrestrial species undergoing normal consultationsand byOctober 11, 2017, for terrestrial species undergoing extended consultations.For a description of the consultation paths these species will undergo, please see:Minister of Environment response to COSEWIC species at risk assessments: October 13, 2016 The COSEWIC Summaries of Terrestrial Species Eligible for Addition or Reclassification on Schedule 1 - January 2017

Related Information

  • Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA) Listing Plan 2016 to 2018 (2017-09-29)

    The status of wildlife species is assessed by an independent panel of expert Canadian scientists, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 149 terrestrial species were assessed as at-risk by COSEWIC between 2009 and 2016 and are eligible for listing under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) to be considered by the Governor-in-Council (GIC) on the recommendation of the Minister of the Environment: 86 species would be new additions, 54 currently listed species would be reclassified and 9 species would be updated to reflect changes in their recognized designatable units. A three-year listing plan has been developed to address all 149 terrestrial species and listing decisions for most species are anticipated by the end of 2018. Making amendments to Schedule 1 of SARA is a two-step process. The first step is for the GIC to propose an amendment through an order in council published in the Canada Gazette, Part I, for a 30-day public comment period. The second step is for the GIC to make a final decision on whether or not to make amendments to Schedule 1 of SARA, taking into consideration comments received during the 30-day public comment period. The amendments are made through an order in council published in the Canada Gazette, Part II. Both orders are accompanied by a Regulatory Impact Analysis Statement (RIAS) which presents the implications of listing the species or changing their status. Publishing this plan on the Species at Risk Public Registry is intended to provide transparency about the Government of Canada’s plan to make listing decisions under the Species at Risk Act. NOTE: The information presented below is intended to provide openness and transparency with respect to when terrestrial species might be considered for listing under Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act. It is intended to assist anyone who may wish to provide comments on such listing considerations. Given any number of factors can affect the timing of a listing decision; the Plan is subject to change. Accordingly, the Plan will be periodically updated.
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