Species Profile

False Hop Sedge

Scientific Name: Carex lupuliformis
Taxonomy Group: Vascular Plants
COSEWIC Range: Ontario, Quebec
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: November 2011
COSEWIC Status: Endangered
COSEWIC Status Criteria: B2ab(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i); D1
COSEWIC Reason for Designation:

In Canada, this rare sedge is found in southern Ontario and Quebec where fewer than 250 mature plants have been found.  There have been substantial historical population losses attributed to residential development and other forms of land use.  Continued declines are attributed to late season flooding, land drainage, invasive alien species, recreation, erosion, garbage deposition, water regime regulation, and residential and urban development.  Recovery efforts have included re-introduction at three sites in Quebec.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Threatened in April 1997. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in May 2000 and November 2011.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Endangered
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2003-06-05

Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.

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Quick Links: | Photo | Description | Distribution and Population | Habitat | Biology | Threats | Protection | Recovery Initiatives | National Recovery Program | Documents

Image of False Hop Sedge

False Hop Sedge Photo 1

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Description

This sedge is a grasslike plant with triangular stems and four to seven leaves, each 30 to 80 cm long, six to 13 mm wide. It grows in clusters, emerging from scaly rhizomes (horizontal underground stems) to reach above 50 cm in height. Spikes are longer and less dense compared to those of the closely related but shorter Carex lupulina. Individuals bear female and male organs. The angles of its achenes (one-seeded fruits that do not open to release seed) bear prominent nipple-like knobs.

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Distribution and Population

The False Hop Sedge is a North American species, distributed throughout eastern United States and southernmost Ontario and Quebec. It is one of the rarest sedges in Canada, known to occur in only five locations in Ontario (London, Amherstburg, Elgin County (two sites) and Mount Brydges) and three in Quebec (all in and around Marcel Raymond Ecological Reserve). The Quebec sites represent the northeastern limit of the species' range. Local populations generally consist of five to 100 specimens, although two sites in Ontario boast more than 100 plants. The total Canadian population is estimated at fewer than 350 clusters of plants, about 300 of which grow in Ontario.

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Habitat

The Canadian populations occur only in the St. Lawrence Lowlands, where the annual precipitation ranges from 81-102 mm. The Quebec populations occur in grassland or scrubland areas of a maple and hickory forest. The Ontario populations grow within the Carolinian Forest zone in areas with swamps, marshes or temporary pools flooded in spring. Populations are largest in open areas with ample sunlight, such as forest edges or clearings.

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Biology

The plant flowers from June to October. It reproduces sexually (by seed) and vegetatively (from rhizomes). Fruit appears from July to September. Flooding probably assists in seed dispersal.

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Threats

This sedge's vigour is reduced when the availability of sunlight is limited, e.g., when blocked by tree canopy. Canadian climatic conditions may also be a limiting factor. Several Canadian sites are further threatened by loss of habitat due to residential construction, agricultural drainage, backfilling and regulation of water level for dams.

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Protection

Federal Protection

The False Hop Sedge is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

The False Hop Sedge is protected by the Ontario Endangered Species Act and the Quebec Act Respecting Threatened or Vulnerable Species. Under these Acts, it is prohibited to kill, harm, harass, or collect this species, or to disturb its habitat. The species occurs on the Marcel Raymond Ecological Reserve, which is owned by the government of Quebec.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.

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Recovery Initiatives

Status of Recovery Planning

Recovery Strategies :

Name Recovery Strategy for the False Hop Sedge (Carex lupuliformis) in Canada
Status Final posting on SAR registry

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Recovery Progress and Activities

Summary of Progress to Date Public awareness campaigns have increased stewardship actions among private land owners. The goal of public involvement in restoration activities is to reduce habitat loss since the destruction of wetland habitat is a leading factor in diminishing populations of False Hop Sedge and other species at risk. Without these stewardship agreements, many wetland habitats would not have any kind of protection. In Quebec, the species is declining. Six of the 11 known populations have disappeared, and the species hasn’t been seen in the last few years at three other sites. The two existing populations seem to face little threats other than a very low number of individuals, which requires immediate attention. Governments and academics have collaborated to produce site-specific conservation plans that will be implemented by local conservation groups and landowners. Summary of Research/Monitoring Activities In Ontario, population monitoring began in 2005 and will continue in 2006. Landowner stewardship has been initiated at each site. Some sites are being affected by municipal drainage, so wetland and hydrological restoration options are being explored. Summary of Recovery Activities A conservation plan for the Riviere du Sud Wetlands habitat is being developed. In the conservation plan, 825 hectares of wetlands would be protected and the agricultural community would be made more aware of the importance and exceptional value of this environment. In the St. Lawrence region of Quebec, voluntary conservation agreements with landowners of marsh, swamp, and peatland are being established to ensure the sustainability of the natural habitat. Greenhouse cultivation is underway with the intent of increasing the numbers of individuals in the wild in 2006. URLs Le Fleuve: Newsletter – St. Lawrence Vision 2000:http://www.slv2000.qc.ca/bibliotheque/lefleuve/vol11no8/terres_humides_a.htm

Documents

PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

7 record(s) found.

COSEWIC Status Reports

  • COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the False Hop Sedge Carex lupuliformis in Canada (2012-10-15)

    False Hop Sedge (Carex lupuliformis) is a perennial sedge that can grow 50 to 130 cm tall. It grows in tufts of 5 to 30 stems from a scaly rhizome. Plants have both male and female flowers. Its small dried fruit (achenes) are three-angled with the angles thickened and bearing prominent knobs. These knobs are the only characteristic that reliably distinguishes False Hop Sedge from Hop Sedge (Carex lupulina), which occupies the same habitat. The species is of no particular horticultural interest and has no known traditional uses. Canadian populations are at the northern limit of the species’ range. These peripheral populations may exhibit genetic and morphological divergences from more central populations.

Response Statements

  • Response Statement - False Hop Sedge (2013-01-03)

    In Canada, this rare sedge is found in southern Ontario and Quebec where fewer than 250 mature plants have been found.  There have been substantial historical population losses attributed to residential development and other forms of land use.  Continued declines are attributed to late season flooding, land drainage, invasive alien species, recreation, erosion, garbage deposition, water regime regulation, and residential and urban development.  Recovery efforts have included re-introduction at three sites in Quebec.

Recovery Strategies

  • Recovery Strategy for the False Hop Sedge (Carex lupuliformis) in Canada (2014-01-23)

    The False Hop Sedge (Carex lupuliformis) is an herbaceous perennial in the sedge family. It is listed as Endangered on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act (SARA). The Minister of the Environment is the competent minister for the recovery of the False Hop Sedge and has developed this strategy, as per section 37 of SARA. It has been prepared in cooperation with the governments of Ontario (Ministry of Natural Resources) and Quebec (Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs du Québec). Some minor errors were identified in the version published on January 23, 2014 and therefore it was removed on August 10, 2021. Those mistakes have been corrected. This document replaces that version.

Action Plans

  • Action Plan for the False Hop Sedge (Carex lupuliformis) in Quebec (2014-10-30)

    False Hop Sedge is an herbaceous perennial in the sedge family that grows in tufts on the margins of wetlands, including swamps, marshes, floodplains and vernal pools. In Canada, it occurs solely in the southernmost part of Ontario and Quebec. The False Hop Sedge was listed as Endangered on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act in June 2003. The Minister of the Environment is the competent minister for the recovery of the False Hop Sedge and has prepared this action plan to implement the recovery strategy, as per section 49 of SARA. It has been prepared in cooperation with the Government of Quebec. This action plan follows from the Recovery Strategy for the False Hop Sedge (Carex lupuliformis) in Canada. A clarification was added concerning the implementation of proposed protection measures on non-federal land. (June 30, 2015)

COSEWIC Annual Reports

  • COSEWIC Annual Report - 2011-2012 (2012-10-05)

    Under Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA), the foremost function of COSEWIC is to “assess the status of each wildlife species considered by COSEWIC to be at risk and, as part of the assessment, identify existing and potential threats to the species”. COSEWIC held two Wildlife Species Assessment Meetings in this reporting year (September 1, 2011 to September 30, 2012) from November 21 to 25, 2011 and from April 29 to May 4, 2012. On February 3, 2012, an Emergency Assessment Subcommittee of COSEWIC also assessed the status of the Tri-colored Bat (Perimyotis subflavus), the Little Brown Myotis (Myotis lucifugus), and the Northern Myotis (Myotis septentrionalis). During the current reporting period COSEWIC assessed the status or reviewed the classification of 67 wildlife species. For species already found on Schedule 1 of SARA, the classification of 32 species was reviewed by COSEWIC and the status of the wildlife species was confirmed to be in the same category (extirpated - no longer found in the wild in Canada but occurring elsewhere, endangered, threatened or of special concern). The wildlife species assessment results for the 2011-2012 reporting period include the following: Extinct: 1 Extirpated: 4 Endangered: 29 Threatened: 10 Special Concern: 15 Data Deficient: 2 Not at Risk: 6 Total: 67 Of the 67 wildlife species examined, COSEWIC reviewed the classification of 49 species that had been previously assessed. The review of classification for 26 of those species resulted in a confirmation of the same status as the previous assessment (see Table 1a).

Permits and Related Agreements

Consultation Documents

  • Consultation on Amending the List of Species under the Species at Risk Act: Terrestrial Species – December 2012 (2013-01-03)

    As part of its strategy for protecting wildlife species at risk, the Government of Canada proclaimed the Species at Risk Act (SARA) on June 5, 2003. Attached to the Act is Schedule 1, the list of the species that receive protection under SARA, also called the List of Wildlife Species at Risk. Please submit your comments by March 4, 2013, for terrestrial species undergoing normal consultations and by October 4, 2013, for terrestrial species undergoing extended consultations. Consultation paths.
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