Species Profile

Rigid Apple Moss

Scientific Name: Bartramia aprica
Other/Previous Names: Apple Moss,Bartramia stricta
Taxonomy Group: Mosses
COSEWIC Range: British Columbia
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: November 2009
COSEWIC Status: Endangered
COSEWIC Status Criteria: B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)
COSEWIC Reason for Designation: This species is found in western North America in British Columbia, Washington and California. In BC, the species occurs at 5 sites on southern Vancouver Island and adjacent Gulf Islands where the species is restricted to Garry Oak ecosystems. The species grows on either well-drained, shallow, compacted soil, or on meta-igneous rock outcrop faces. The species is closely associated with seepage areas. Threats include weed invasion, trampling, changes in land use that affect grazing patterns, and urbanization of Garry Oak ecosystems.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Threatened in April 1997. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in May 2000 and November 2009.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Endangered
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2003-06-05

Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.

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Quick Links: | Photo | Description | Distribution and Population | Habitat | Biology | Threats | Protection | Recovery Initiatives | Recovery Team | National Recovery Program | Documents

Image of Rigid Apple Moss

Rigid Apple Moss Photo 1

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Description

The Rigid Apple Moss is a small, pale yellow-green moss, 1 to 3 cm high. It is characterized by ribbed globular capsules known as sporangium or spore-holding sacks. The leaves are straight and erect when wet or dry. It resembles the cone shape of a pencil tip.

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Distribution and Population

The species grows on low elevations in Mediterranean-like climates. In Canada, suitable habitat is found only on eastern Vancouver Island and on some of the adjacent Gulf Islands, the northern limit of the species' range. Otherwise, it is found in northern California. One hundred and eighty three patches varying in size from one square centimetre to four square metres have been recently found in the Nanaimo area of southwestern British Columbia. Whether this represents an increase or decline in abundance is not known.

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Habitat

The Nanaimo site is a steep, dry, south-facing slope dominated by Garry Oak with some Douglas Fir and Arbutus. Micro-habitats include well-humidified soil that appears to be disturbed and is relatively free of grasses and other vascular plants or lichens; and thin soil within crevices on rock outcrops. The species may also grow directly on rocks.

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Biology

The reproductive organs of both sexes are in close proximity on a single plant. Spores are the primary means of dispersal and reproduction. The Canadian population is producing spores regularly and successfully.

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Threats

The major threat to the Rigid Apple Moss is urban development, which has altered or destroyed suitable habitat.

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Protection

Federal Protection

The Rigid Apple Moss is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.

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Recovery Initiatives

Status of Recovery Planning

Recovery Strategies :

Name Recovery Strategy for the Rigid Apple Moss (Bartramia stricta Bridel) in Canada
Status Final posting on SAR registry

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Recovery Team

BC Bryophyte Recovery Team

  • Brenda Costanzo - Chair/Contact - Government of BC
    Phone: 250-387-9611  Fax: 250-356-9145  Send Email

Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team

  • Conan Webb - Chair/Contact - Parks Canada
    Phone: 250-478-5153  Send Email

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Documents

PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

10 record(s) found.

COSEWIC Status Reports

  • COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Rigid Apple Moss Bartramia stricta in Canada (2010-09-03)

    Bartramia stricta is a moss belonging to the family Bartramiaceae, comprised of small to medium-sized, green to yellow-green species that grow in tufts. Within this group, Bartramia stricta is characterized by its glaucous green colour, spherical sporangium (subcylindrical and ribbed when dry), and linear leaves that are straight and erect either wet or dry.

COSEWIC Assessments

  • COSEWIC Assessment Summary and Status Report: Rigid Apple Moss Bartramia stricta (2010-09-03)

    Assessment Summary – November 2009 Common name Rigid Apple Moss Scientific name Bartramia stricta Status Endangered Reason for designation This species is found in western North America in British Columbia, Washington and California. In BC, the species occurs at 5 sites on southern Vancouver Island and adjacent Gulf Islands, where the species is restricted to Garry Oak ecosystems. The species grows on either well–drained, shallow, compacted soil, or on meta–igneous rock outcrop faces. The species is closely associated with seepage areas. Threats include weed invasion, trampling, changes in land use that affect grazing patterns, and urbanization of Garry Oak ecosystems. Occurrence British Columbia Status history Designated Threatened in April 1997. Status re–examined and designated Endangered in May 2000 and November 2009. Please note that the related COSEWIC Status Report is available below in PDF format. You will be asked to provide your e-mail address then you will receive a link to download the publication. After processing, your email address is not retained in any way and is automatically discarded by our system.

Response Statements

  • Response Statement - Rigid Apple Moss (2010-12-02)

    This species is found in western North America in British Columbia, Washington and California. In BC, the species occurs at 5 sites on southern Vancouver Island and adjacent Gulf Islands where the species is restricted to Garry Oak ecosystems. The species grows on either well-drained, shallow, compacted soil, or on meta-igneous rock outcrop faces. The species is closely associated with seepage areas. Threats include weed invasion, trampling, changes in land use that affect grazing patterns, and urbanization of Garry Oak ecosystems.

Recovery Strategies

COSEWIC Annual Reports

  • COSEWIC Annual Report - 2010 (2010-09-03)

    Under Canada’s Species At Risk Act (SARA), the foremost function of COSEWIC is to “assess the status of each wildlife species considered by COSEWIC to be at risk and, as part of the assessment, identify existing and potential threats to the species”. During the past year, COSEWIC held two Wildlife Species Assessment Meetings and reviewed the status of 79 wildlife species (species, subspecies, populations). During the meeting of November 2009, COSEWIC assessed or reviewed the classification of the status of 28 wildlife species. COSEWIC assessed or reviewed the classification of an additional 51 wildlife species (species, subspecies and populations) during their April 2010 meeting. For species already found on Schedule 1 of SARA, the classification of 32 species was reviewed by COSEWIC and the status of the wildlife species was confirmed to be in the same category (extirpated - no longer found in the wild in Canada but occurring elsewhere, endangered, threatened or of special concern). The wildlife species assessment results for the 2009-2010 reporting period include the following: Extirpated: 6 Endangered: 39 Threatened: 16 Special Concern: 17 Data Deficient: 1 This report transmits to the Minister the status of 46 species newly classified as extirpated, endangered, threatened or of special concern, fulfilling COSEWIC’s obligations under SARA Section 24 and 25. A full detailed summary of the assessment for each species and the reason for the designation can be found in Appendix I of the attached report. Since its inception, COSEWIC has assessed 602 wildlife species in various risk categories, including 262 Endangered, 151 Threatened, 166 Special Concern and 23 Extirpated. In addition, 13 wildlife species have been assessed as Extinct. Also, to date, 46 wildlife species have been identified by COSEWIC as Data Deficient and 166 wildlife species were assessed as Not at Risk. This year has been a particularly productive year for COSEWIC’s Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK) Subcommittee. In April 2010 COSEWIC approved the Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge Process and Protocol Guidelines, providing clear and agreed principles for the gathering of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge to carry out COSEWIC functions as required under Section 15(2) of SARA (See Appendix III of the attached report). We are grateful for the rich and enthusiastic contribution made by community elders and experts in helping the ATK Subcommittee prepare the ATK protocols.

Permits and Related Agreements

  • Explanation for issuing permit(#SARA-PYR-2008-0094), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2008-06-19)

    The project involves collection of a very small patch of moss (1 sq. cm) and subsequent identification in the laboratory to determine presence/absence of Rigid Apple Moss.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#SARA-PYR-2009-0124), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2009-12-15)

    This work will involve the removal of Scotch Broom and other invasive species from the proposed critical habitat areas of Rigid Apple Moss, White Meconella and White-top Aster on the north West slope Of Observatory Hill. The work will be controlled and done under the Supervision of the Permit holder. The permit holder is a expert in the identification and the location of rare species on Observatory Hill and in particular in the area of the defined critical habitat. Invasive plant will be pulled where they do not disrupt the living area of at risk species and cut where any possible disruption is anticipated. The botanist will clearly flag no-go areas to control
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#SARA-PYR-2009-0126), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2010-02-04)

    The goal of this project is to protect selected populations of rare species from habitat degradation due to invasive species or conifer encroachment. The species include: Bartramia stricta, Rigid Apple Moss Dryopteris arguta, Coastal Wood Fern Enthostodon fascicularis,Banded Cord-moss Epilobium densiflorum, Dense Spike-primrose Limnanthes macounii ,Macoun's Meadowfoam Lotus formosissimus, Seaside Birds-foot Lotus Lupinus densiflorus, Dense-flowered Lupine Meconella oregano, White Meconella Microseris bigelovii, Coast Microseris Minuartia pusilla, Dwarf Sandwort Ranunculus alismifolius, Water-plantain Buttercup Sanicula arctopoides, Bear's-foot Sanicle Sanicula bipinnatifida, Purple Sanicle Tortula laevipila, Twisted Oak Moss The permit proposal is for multi-year species at risk (SAR) stewardship activities at several Department of National Defence (DND) properties on Southern Vancouver Island. The SAR at each site occur in open meadows that are being encroached by invasive species such as: Scotch broom, English ivy, gorse, English holly, Daphne spurge, English hawthorn, herbaceous annual and biennial weeds, annual and perennial grasses and/or conifers. The goal is to remove the invading species from the area within and adjacent to the selected SAR populations.

Consultation Documents

  • Consultation on Amending the List of Species under the Species at Risk Act: Terrestrial Species – November 2010 (2010-12-02)

    As part of its strategy for protecting wildlife species at risk, the Government of Canada proclaimed the Species at Risk Act (SARA) on June 5, 2003. Attached to the Act is Schedule 1, the list of the species that receive protection under SARA, also called the List of Wildlife Species at Risk. Please submit your comments by February 4, 2011 for species undergoing normal consultations and by February 4, 2012 for species undergoing extended consultations.

Exceptions

  • Public Registry Notice for s.83 Exceptions - CFB Esquimalt (2015-03-06)

    Operations directed to ensuring that training areas are sustainable for activities related to national defence/security. Specifically, the exceptions apply to activities for the control and management of vegetation that interferes with, or restricts, training.
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