Species Profile

Northern Abalone

Scientific Name: Haliotis kamtschatkana
Taxonomy Group: Molluscs
COSEWIC Range: British Columbia, Pacific Ocean
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: April 2009
COSEWIC Status: Endangered
COSEWIC Status Criteria: A2bd
COSEWIC Reason for Designation: Highly valued for its meat, this marine mollusc is patchily distributed along the west coast of Canada. Despite a total moratorium on harvest in 1990, the species was designated as Threatened in 2000. Poaching is the most serious threat and continues to reduce population abundance, particularly the larger, more fecund component; however, all size classes have declined significantly over the past three generations (i.e. since 1978) with mature individuals declining an estimated 88-89%. Low densities may further exacerbate the problem by reducing fertilization success in this broadcast spawner (the Allee effect). Although predators such as the recovering Sea Otter population are not responsible for recently observed declines, they may ultimately influence future abundance of abalone populations.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Threatened in April 1999. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2000. Status re-examined and designated Endangered in April 2009.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Endangered
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2003-06-05

Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.

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Quick Links: | Photo | Description | Distribution and Population | Habitat | Biology | Threats | Protection | Recovery Initiatives | National Recovery Program | Documents

Image of Northern Abalone

Northern Abalone Photo 1

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Description

The shell of this mollusc is relatively small, thin, low, and ovate to oval in shape. Near the narrow shell margin are three to six open holes on tubular projections. There is a broad channel on the body whorl, between the suture and the row of holes. Irregular bumps are superimposed over a spiral of broad ribs interspaced with weak ribs. The shell is mottled reddish or greenish in colour, with areas of white or blue. The interior is pearly white with faint iridescence of pink and green.

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Distribution and Population

The mollusc is found along the Pacific Coast from Alaska to Turtle Bay, Baja California (Mexico). Abalone were apparently fairly abundant in the early 1970s, since the sea otter - a major predator species - had been extirpated, and no significant abalone fisheries were in operation. The mollusc may have expanded its distribution to more open habitats in the absence of these sources of mortality. The abalone fishery for export began in British Columbia in 1975 and peaked in 1977-78, before a quota was set (in 1979); the fishery was closed in 1990 to conserve the declining abalone stocks. Surveys by Fisheries and Oceans Canada at indicator sites, during 1979-97, indicated a continued decline of abalone densities on the central coast of B.C. Total abalone density declined 43.75% between the 1993 and 1997 surveys.

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Habitat

At its northern range limit, the Northern Abalone occurs from the lower intertidal zone to at least 100 m depth. In British Columbia, it is mostly subtidal; adults are usually found at <10 m depth. The abalone prefer a firm substrate, usually rock, and are generally found in areas of moderate water exchange, such as occurs on exposed or semi-exposed coasts. They are patchily distributed within this habitat. Loss of sea weed (marine macroalgae) along the British Columbian coast may have increased the visibility of the molluscs to predators.

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Biology

Female Northern Abalone release their eggs into the water, where they are fertilized by the males. Fertilization is therefore maximized when abalone concentrate in abundance during spawning. It is thought that the larval period is short (<10 days), and that larval dispersal is limited in geographic extent (10-100 m). Adults likely only move over a range of a few hundred metres during their lifetimes, which in some cases may reach up to 50 years.

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Threats

There are two main limiting factors for the Northern Abalone. First, poaching of abalone continues to be a major problem. The northern abalone is vulnerable to over-exploitation because this species has a short larval period, is slow growing, relatively long-lived (and therefore matures slowly), sedentary and has low or sporadic recruitment. Mature individuals which tend to accumulate in shallow water, are easily accessible to harvesters. Samples from abalone illegally harvested during 1995-98 suggested that poachers removed mostly large mature abalone, but with no regard for the minimum legal size limit of 100mm shell length. Without size and fishing rate controls, illegal harvesting not only depletes already depressed abalone stocks, but also reduces their reproductive potential, by removal of large mature abalone, and hinders attempts to rehabilitate abalone populations through fishery closure. It has been suggested that the current illegal harvest may be comparable to the 1989 quota fishery. Enforcement is difficult, but without reductions in illegal harvest, protection of brood stock, a continued closure of the fishery, and other effective rehabilitation methods, abalone population abundance will likely remain low or more likely continue to decline in most areas of B.C.. Also, reintroduction of the sea otter to the coast of British Columbia has been successful, and the range and abundance of this predator are expanding. If the otter regains all of its historical range, this will include virtually all of the habitat presently occupied by the abalone. Abalone can coexist with sea otters, but at a relatively low density; the more cryptically coloured individuals tend to survive longest.

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Protection

Federal Protection

The Northern Abalone is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

The Northern Abalone is the only invertebrate species for which all fishing in British Columbia is totally banned, under the Fisheries Act. However, poaching continues to be a serious problem, because demand for abalone is high around the world. The effectiveness of enforcement measures may ultimately determine whether abalone stocks will have the opportunity to recover.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.

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Recovery Initiatives

Status of Recovery Planning

Recovery Strategies :

Name Recovery Strategy for Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) in Canada
Status Final posting on SAR registry

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Recovery Progress and Activities

Summary of Progress to Date Between 1978 and 1984, the abundance of Northern Abalone along Canada’s west coast declined by more than 75%. To protect the remaining population and allow for natural recovery, all Northern Abalone fisheries were closed in 1990. However, the population failed to show signs of recovery, largely because of continued illegal harvest, so in 1999 a comprehensive Rebuilding Strategy for Abalone in British Columbia was initiated. In 2000, three important stewardship projects began. These projects have become the cornerstones for abalone research, rebuilding efforts, and stewardship. In 2001, the Abalone Recovery Team was formed and in 2002 the rebuilding strategy was adopted into the Abalone Recovery Strategy, under the Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk. This was the first Pacific recovery strategy. Since then, an Abalone Coast Watch program has been established by a number of coastal First Nation communities, and educational activities, population assessments, and population rebuilding projects are well underway. Summary of Research/Monitoring Activities Since 2000, five key projects have been testing potential strategies for rebuilding the Northern Abalone population and monitoring recruitment and recovery of the species. These projects include testing methods and factors that improve abalone reproduction and recruitment, studying ocean currents and larval drift to identify areas with the greatest potential for acting as reintroduction sites, and releasing hatchery-raised abalone into the wild. An oceanographic simulation model has been developed and field sampling is being done to examine the dispersal and retention of abalone larvae in the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve. The results of these studies are intended to identify the best methods and locations for juvenile recruitment and larval retention. Abalone surveys at key monitoring sites continue to be completed every five years. New sites have been established to monitor the population status and the effectiveness of the recovery programs. In 2003, genetic studies to distinguish the Northern Abalone from other abalone species in the marketplace were completed. Genetic testing is ongoing to identify illegally harvested Northern Abalone and assist Fisheries Officers in making convictions. Summary of Recovery Activities In 2001, several new, permanently marked monitoring sites for the Northern Abalone were established, and an Abalone “Coast Watch” program was developed to monitor local abalone populations along the British Columbia coast and report suspicious and illegal activities. Two major stewardship areas have been established within Haida Gwaii/Queen Charlotte Islands. Mature Northern Abalone have been gathered together into these sites, as well as into sites in the Kitasoo/Xaixais traditional territory on the mainland British Columbia coast, to improve this species’ reproductive success. Five experimental sites have been established within and just outside the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve to investigate abalone transplanting success. Two hundred tagged Northern Abalone were transplanted to each of three treatment sites and were monitored for density, reproductive productivity, and size. These measurements were compared with those of two control sites of 200 tagged, non-transplanted abalone. Close by, 75,000 hatchery-raised abalone juveniles and 1 million larvae have been released to the wild. Enforcement efforts continue. In February 2006, the largest poaching-related arrest in Canada’s history caught three men with an estimated 11,000 abalone (1120 kg). In 2005, there were three Northern Abalone cases, in which all individuals were convicted. Recent fines have been $25,000 and $35,000. First Nations and coastal community stewardship groups continue to campaign the message to stop illegal harvesting of Northern Abalone. In 2005, the Abalone Recovery Implementation Group was formalized to oversee recovery implementation on behalf of the Abalone Recovery Team. URLs Oceanlink: Abalone:http://oceanlink.island.net/oinfo/Abalone/abalone.html Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada: Abalone Recovery Strategy:http://www-comm.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/pages/consultations/fisheriesmgmt/abalone/default_e.htm Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada: Abalone Home Page: http://www.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/ops/fm/shellfish/Abalone/default_e.htm Marine Matters: Haida Gwaii/Queen Charlotte Islands:http://www.marinematters.org/

Documents

PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

112 record(s) found.

Reports on the Progress of Recovery Document Implementation

COSEWIC Status Reports

  • COSEWIC Assessment and Update Status Report on the Northern Abalone Haliotis kamtschatkana in Canada (2009-08-28)

    The Northern Abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana Jonas 1845, is the only species of abalone commonly occurring in Canada. There is only one genetically uniform population along the coast of British Columbia. Northern Abalone are recognized by their low ear-shaped shell with irregular lumps and 3-6 respiratory holes on projections. A groove usually parallels the line of holes. The exterior shell colour is usually mottled reddish or greenish with areas of white and blue. The interior of the shell is pearly white with faint iridescence of pink and green without a muscle scar. The large foot is usually tan surrounded by an epipodium (a sensory structure and extension of the foot that bears tentacles) that is somewhat vertically striped and has a delicate lacy appearance.

Response Statements

  • Response Statement - Northern Abalone (2009-11-25)

    Highly valued for its meat, this marine mollusc is patchily distributed along the west coast of Canada. Despite a total moratorium on harvest in 1990, the species was designated as Threatened in 2000. Poaching is the most serious threat and continues to reduce population abundance, particularly the larger, more fecund component; however, all size classes have declined significantly over the past three generations (i.e. since 1978) with mature individuals declining an estimated 88-89%. Low densities may further exacerbate the problem by reducing fertilization success in this broadcast spawner (the Allee effect). Although predators such as the recovering Sea Otter population are not responsible for recently observed declines, they may ultimately influence future abundance of abalone populations.

Recovery Strategies

  • Recovery Strategy for Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) in Canada (2007-09-27)

    The northern or pinto abalone has been declining in numbers and distribution in surveyed areas of coastal British Columbia (B.C.), Canada, as documented by regular surveys since the late 1970s. The northern abalone fisheries in B.C. were closed to all harvest in 1990 to protect the remaining population. Despite the complete ban on harvest, the population continued to decline and showed no sign of recovery. As a result, northern abalone were assigned a threatened status by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) in April 1999. In June 2003, northern abalone were legally listed and protected as threatened under the Species at Risk Act (SARA).

Action Plans

  • Action Plan for the Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) in Canada (2012-04-11)

    This action plan for Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) in Canada forms the integral component to implementing the Recovery Strategy for Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) in Canada (DFO 2007). This action plan includes recovery activities, the species' critical habitat and mechanisms for critical habitat protection including a SARA order prohibiting the destruction of critical habitat. Please refer to the recovery strategy for more complete information about Northern Abalone and its recovery in Canada, available on the SARA Public Registry or by contacting the Abalone Recovery Team Chairpersons listed in Appendix 1. The Action Plan for Northern Abalone is now finalized. The document includes recovery activities, the species' critical habitat and mechanisms for critical habitat protection including a SARA order prohibiting the destruction of critical habitat.
  • Multi-species Action Plan for Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve, National Marine Conservation Area Reserve, and Haida Heritage Site (2016-07-04)

    The Multi-species Action Plan for Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve, National Marine Conservation Area Reserve, and Haida Heritage Site meets the requirements for an action plan set out in the Species at Risk Act (SARA (s.47)) for species requiring an action plan that occur inside the boundary of the site. This action plan will be updated to more comprehensively include measures to conserve and recover the marine species at risk once the first integrated Land, Sea, People management plan for Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve, National Marine Conservation Area Reserve & Haida Heritage Site (hereafter called Gwaii Haanas) is complete. Measures described in this plan will also provide benefits for other species of conservation concern that regularly occur in Gwaii Haanas.
  • Multi-species Action Plan for Pacific Rim National Park Reserve of Canada (2017-08-24)

    Backed by the Insular Mountain Range of Vancouver Island and facing the open Pacific Ocean, Pacific Rim National Park Reserve of Canada (Pacific Rim NPR) protects and presents the rich natural and cultural heritage of Canada's west coast. Pacific Rim NPR consists of three distinct units, the Long Beach Unit, Broken Group Islands Unit, and West Coast Trail Unit, each offering a range of unique visitor experiences. With significant areas (51,216 ha in total) of old growth, temperate rainforest, coastal dune systems, wetlands and foreshore, and marine habitats, the park demonstrates the interconnectedness between land, sea, and people. These natural wonders are interwoven with the Nuu-chah-nulth First Nations culture (past and present), and that of European explorers and settlers.

Orders

COSEWIC Annual Reports

  • COSEWIC Annual Report - 2009 (2009-08-28)

    2009 Annual Report to the The Minister of the Environment and the Canadian Endangered Species Conservation Council (CESCC) from the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

Permits and Related Agreements

  • Explanation for issuing licence(#DFO-18-PPAC-00016), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2018-05-07)

    Activity will consist of the following: Annual standard abalone surveys, including measuring abalone underwater and returning them to their original location. Annual tag-recapture surveys in which abalone are tagged in situ underwater. Both of these activities will allow for the collection of data regarding the Northern Abalone biology, demographics, and distribution.
  • Explanation for issuing other simliar documents(#DFO-16-HPAC-01108), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2016-10-31)

    The Nathan E. Stewart tug sank in shallow waters in Seaforth Channel and removal of the tug is required to reduce impacts of the vessel to fish and fish habitat. To accomplish this, the first works include securing the tug to prevent it from shifting and moving with tides and waves. This will be done using mooring anchors and chains connecting the tug to the barge(s) and other equipment. The second works involve securing the large lift barge in place with large anchors, chains and other equipment to prepare the barge for its work in dragging the tug. The third works require the tug to be dragged approximately 335 meters from the shallow water along the substrate to deeper waters toward the lift barge where it can be recovered. Once in deeper water the tug will be hoisted out of the water and brought on board the barge and taken away from the site. Although relocation of abalone will be done in advance of works, there is risk that abalone may be killed or injured during works and habitat for abalone and other marine organisms may be destroyed.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#18-HPAC-00373), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2018-06-08)

    The project involves the reactivation of a historic log watering facility at Cliff Cove near Zeballos, B.C. Works involve the installation of a skidway and deposition of wood debris in the area fronting the skidway. There is potential that Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) will be present at the worksite. Northern Abalone will be salvaged and relocated from the area prior to the start of works, should any be encountered. The salvage of Northern Abalone would result in the capture and handling of individuals.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#18-HPAC-00501), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2018-06-04)

    The project is an Esquimalt Harbour remediation project, which is part of a larger multi-year, harbour wide, sediment remediation project. Works involve dredging, backfilling, deconstruction of existing infrastructure, pile driving of temporary piles, and removal and reinstatement of fenders, floats and pilings. There is potential that Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) will be present at the worksite. Northern Abalone will be salvaged and relocated from the area prior to the start of works, should any be encountered. The salvage of Northern Abalone would result in the capture and handling of individuals.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#18-HPAC-00839), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-10-01)

    The project involves ferry terminal infrastructure replacement works in Bear Cove, Port Hardy. The works include removing floating timber leads and installing new steel leads. There is potential that Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) will be present at the worksite. Northern Abalone will be salvaged and relocated from the area prior to the start of works, should any be encountered. The salvage of Northern Abalone would result in the capture and handling of individuals.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-HPAC-00054), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-04-23)

    The project involves the reactivation of a historic log watering facility and two log storage areas in Griffin Passage. A volume of 100,000m3 of logs will be watered over five years of operation. The location of the Project is within identified Critical Habitat for Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana). Northern Abalone will be salvaged and relocated from the potential impact areas at all three sites (log handling and two log storage facilities) prior to operations. The salvage of Northern Abalone would result in the capture and relocation of individuals.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-HPAC-00682 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-09-29)

    The activity involves the construction of a 5.5km long connector road in Prince Rupert, BC. The transportation corridor construction will require marine infilling and dredging works along the Western shoreline of Kaien Island in Hecate Strait, Prince Rupert Harbour. The works are authorized under a Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) authorization (DFO file number 17-HPAC-00389). Prior to the start of work, a salvage for fish and marine invertebrates will be conducted as a means to protect fish from harm or mortality during active works. As the site is located in an area where Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) may be present, a SARA permit was issued by DFO allowing for the capture and handling of Northern Abalone individuals during fish salvage activities. The site is not designated as critical habitat for the Northern Abalone. Killing of Northern Abalone is not permitted.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PPAC-00004 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-06-01)

    Activity will consist of the following: Inspection and monitoring of Northern Abalone present in 35 artificial habitats ("condos") by SCUBA divers. These "condos" consist of concrete bricks arranged haphazardly and housed in a modified commercial crab trap. Surveying of each condo by carefully removing and examining the concrete bricks. Removing, measuring, and recording data (in situ) on each of the Northern Abalone individuals present within the "condos". In particular: How many Northern Abalone individuals are present in each artificial habitat? How large are these abalone?
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PPAC-00009 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-04-01)

    Activity will consist of the following: Measuring the length of all observed Northern Abalone underwater using calipers Collecting up to (and including) approximately 30 Northern Abalone (for a total of up to and including 150 Northern Abalone individuals at all 5 sites) by SCUBA divers. Bringing the collected Northern Abalone individuals to the boat and holding them in cool aerated seawater. Removing, preserving, and possessing tissue samples following the procedures described in Withler et al. (2003). In particular: Removing 2-4 epipodia per Northern Abalone individual and then storing these tissue samples in 95% ethanol for later genetic analysis. Measuring the weight and identifying the sex of each Northern Abalone brought to the surface for tissue collection Returning the Northern Abalone individuals to the site where they were collected.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PPAC-00015 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-07-10)

    Activity 1 (tagging) will consist of the following: i. Collecting up to (and including) 500 abalone per treatment area (for a total of up to and including 1000 Northern Abalone individuals) by SCUBA divers. ii. Bringing the collected Northern Abalone individuals to the boat and holding them in cool aerated seawater; iii. Drying the shell of each Northern Abalone individual and using epoxy to glue a small plastic tag to the shell. iv. Measuring each Northern Abalone individual. v. Returning the Northern Abalone individuals to the site where they were collected. vi. This will occur in 2019 and 2020. Activity 2 (sampling for isotope analysis) will consist of the following: i. Collecting up to (and including) 20 abalone per site (for a total of up to and including 80 Northern Abalone individuals at all sites) by SCUBA divers. ii. Bringing the collected Northern Abalone individuals to the boat and holding them in cool aerated seawater. iii. Removing, preserving, and possessing epipodia tissue samples following the procedures described in Withler et al. (2003). In particular, removing up to 10 epipodia per Northern Abalone individual and then storing these tissue samples in 95% ethanol for later analysis. iv. Measuring and sexing each Northern Abalone individual. v. Returning the Northern Abalone individuals to the site where they were collected. This will occur in 2019 and 2020. Activity 3 (field surveys) will consist of the following: i. conducting surveys of Northern Abalone size and frequency at 8 permanent sites in Gwaii Haanas. A proportion of Northern Abalone encountered in each transect will be measured using calipers.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PPAC-00016), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-10-15)

    Young Northern Abalone that are too small to detect visually are sometimes incidentally collected when they settle on substrates in their planktonic stage. They subsequently grow into their juvenile stage on certain structures and substrates (e.g., rocks) and are then noticed. There are no feasible methods that would prevent this incidental collection. The shells of juvenile larval Northern Abalone are fragile and susceptible to structural damage. Individuals that are incidentally collected will be given time to grow and mature without being handled, until a point that risk to survival from handling decreases. They will be kept for a maximum of 12 months and will be released into the wild when deemed safe to do so. Health screenings will be regularly conducted and protocols to minimize risk to the survival of individuals are in place.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PPAC-00020 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-20)

    Activity will consist of the following: Northern Abalone will be counted and their shell length measured by trained SCUBA divers during DFO invertebrate surveys. All measurements will take place underwater. Abalone will be measured in place, where possible. Northern Abalone that are detached are only detached long enough to make the length measurement, and will be returned to the site they were collected as soon as possible Any Northern Abalone that cannot be safely detached will be left, measured in place If possible, or just counted.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19-PPAC-00022 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2019-08-15)

    Activity will consist of the following: Northern Abalone will be counted and their shell length measured with calipers by trained researchers during intertidal and dive surveys. Abalone will be measured in place, where possible. Northern Abalone that are detached are only detached long enough to make the length measurement, and will be returned to the site they were collected as soon as possible. Any Northern Abalone that cannot be safely detached will be left, measured in place If possible, or just counted.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-HPAC-00073 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-03-01)

    The activity involves works to secure undermined pier infrastructure at the Ogden Point Cruise Ship Terminal. Stabilization works include the installation of steel plates against the existing pier face and the backfilling of void spaces behind the plate with concrete. Sandbags will be stacked against voids at the base of the pier and re-bar will be secured as necessary. Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) may be present at the worksite, and will be salvaged and relocated from the area prior to the start of works should any be encountered. The salvage of Northern Abalone would result in the capture and handling of individuals. Any Northern Abalone captured during salvage will be released to a nearby location along the Ogden Point breakwater and at the same depth at which they were collected from the pier.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-HPAC-00368 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-12-31)

    The activity involves the construction of a new ferry moorage site within 500m of the existing BC Ferries terminal at Quathiaski Cove, Quadra Island, British Columbia. Pile driving is required as part of ferry moorage berth construction. The results of a previously conducted site survey suggest there is potential for Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschakana) to be present in the vicinity of the proposed pile driving. Prior to the start of pile driving, a dive survey for Northern Abalone will be conducted. Any Northern Abalone individuals located in the vicinity of the proposed pile driving footprint will be captured and relocated to suitable habitat adjacent to but outside of the pile driving footprint, and at the same depth of capture. The killing of Northern Abalone or other fish is not authorized under this permit.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PPAC-00001 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-04-28)

    Activity will consist of the following: I. Inspection and monitoring of Northern Abalone present in artificial habitats ("condos") at 35 sites by SCUBA divers. These "condos" consist of concrete bricks arranged and housed in a modified commercial crab trap. ii. Surveying of each condo by carefully removing and examining the concrete bricks. iii. Removing, measuring, and recording data (in situ) on each of the Northern Abalone individuals present within the "condos". In particular: How many Northern Abalone individuals are present in each artificial habitat? How large are these abalone?
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#20-PPAC-00012 ), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2020-07-15)

    Activity 1 (sampling for isotope analysis) will consist of the following: i. Collecting up to (and including) 20 abalone per site (for a total of up to and including 80 Northern Abalone individuals at all sites) by SCUBA divers. ii. Bringing the collected Northern Abalone individuals to the boat and holding them in cool aerated seawater. iii. Removing, preserving, and possessing epipodia tissue samples following the procedures described in Withler et al. (2003). A maximum of 10 epipodia per Northern Abalone individual will be removed. iv. Measuring and sexing each Northern Abalone individual. v. Returning the Northern Abalone individuals to the site where they were collected. Activity 2 (field surveys) will consist of the following: i. conducting surveys of Northern Abalone size and frequency at 8 permanent sites in Gwaii Haanas. A proportion of Northern Abalone encountered in each transect will be measured using calipers. Individuals sampled in Activity 1 will not be sampled in Activity 2.
  • >> See more Permits and Related Agreements documents

Critical Habitat Orders

  • Critical Habitat of the Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) Order (2017-12-13)

    The recovery goal of increasing Northern Abalone to self-sustainable levels, as set out in the Recovery Strategy, can be expected to take several decades. Efforts to achieve both the short-term and long-term goals are ongoing and are supported through measures outlined in the Action Plan for the Northern Abalone (Haliotis kamtschatkana) in Canada and the Multi-species Action Plan for Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve, National Marine Conservation Area Reserve, and Haida Heritage Site. Present threats to Northern Abalone, as identified in the Recovery Strategy, include: illegal harvesting; low recruitment; habitat loss or degradation; and Sea Otter predation. In comparison to the other threats to Northern Abalone, habitat loss or degradation is considered a low level concern in the Recovery Strategy, as it was deemed that sufficient habitat is available for the Northern Abalone population.
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