Species Profile

Lakeside Daisy

Scientific Name: Tetraneuris herbacea
Other/Previous Names: Hymenoxys herbacea
Taxonomy Group: Vascular Plants
COSEWIC Range: Ontario
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: May 2002
COSEWIC Status: Threatened
COSEWIC Status Criteria: Met criteria for Endangered, B1ab(iv)+2ab(iv), but because a large proportion of the population is in protected areas, it was designated Threatened.
COSEWIC Reason for Designation: A Great Lakes endemic of global importance, geographically restricted to two shoreline regions of very restricted and provincially rare alvar habitats with large populations subject to risks from natural herbivores and increasing recreational use of its habitat.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Threatened in May 2002.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Threatened
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2005-01-12

Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.

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Quick Links: | Photo | Description | Distribution and Population | Habitat | Biology | Threats | Protection | Recovery Initiatives | Recovery Team | National Recovery Program | Documents

Image of Lakeside Daisy

Lakeside Daisy Photo 1



The Lakeside Daisy is a small perennial herb with one or more leafy rosettes (a round cluster of leaves) that grow from a dense tuft at the base of the plant and can each be up to 10 cm tall. The narrow leaves appear to have no stems. Mostly linear and somewhat fleshy in appearance, they become dark green and moderately hairy at maturity. The flower buds form in the fall and bloom the following spring as a solitary golden blossom on a short stalk. The bright yellow flowers are very striking against the plants’ relatively barren limestone habitat.


Distribution and Population

The Lakeside Daisy is a rare endemic (species restricted to a given area) of the Great Lakes region, with 95% of its global range in Canada. Thirty-eight populations are currently known from two large, relatively undisturbed regions in Ontario, the Bruce Peninsula and southern Manitoulin Island. In 2000, the number of flowering adults per population ranged from 3 to an estimated 3 540 000. The total size of the Canadian population is probably not changing appreciably; however, populations that have been monitored in the most heavily traveled areas are noticeably declining.



The species is predominantly found in alvars. These sparsely vegetated habitats are characteristically flat, receive a high amount of sunlight, and have sparsely distributed soil on top of dolomite or limestone bedrock. Lakeside Daisies mostly grow in the cracks of the limestone, or on tufts of low-growing vegetation (such as mosses). The habitat is wet in spring and fall and moderately dry in the summer.



The Lakeside Daisy spreads via rhizomatous (underground stem) growth and/or branching of the woody persistent stem. In Canada, it flowers from early May to early July and is pollinated by insects. The species is self-incompatible, which means that it is unable to produce seeds when pollinated by pollen from the same plant or any other genetically similar individual. When pollination is successful, seeds are produced approximately three weeks after the flowers bloom. Seeds are dispersed primarily by gravity but may also be influenced by wind and animal grazing.



Quarrying activity and cottage construction are rapidly reducing the amount of suitable habitat available on private property, while human traffic is adding to the damage incurred in public areas. Trampling on shoreline habitat and the conversion of alvar habitats into camping areas are examples of threats to the species in Bruce Peninsula National Park. Naturally occurring herbivores (seed-eating insects, rabbits, birds, and deer) eat Lakeside Daisies. The alvar habitat is also rare and may be experiencing increasing climatic stresses. There appear to be suitable unoccupied habitats within the species’ geographic range. It is not known whether the absence of the Lakeside Daisy from these locations is due to the poor ability of the plant to disperse, or to environments that are unsuitable for its establishment.



Federal Protection

The Lakeside Daisy is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

More than half of the populations also receive some level of protection due to their occurrence inside a national park or a privately owned botanical preserve.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.


Recovery Initiatives

Status of Recovery Planning

Recovery Strategies :

Name Recovery Strategy for the Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys herbacea) in Canada
Status Final posting on SAR registry


Recovery Team

Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island Alvar Ecosystem Recovery Team

  • Kirsten Querbach - Chair/Contact - Environment Canada
    Phone: 819-938-4038  Send Email


Recovery Progress and Activities

Summary of Progress to Date Recovery for the Lakeside Daisy is addressed in the National Recovery Strategy for the Alvar Ecosystems of the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island Regions in Ontario, which was produced by a multi-partner recovery team. The team is co-chaired by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) and Parks Canada, with support from Environment Canada. There has not been a significant change in Canada’s overall population of Lakeside Daisy, though declines have been observed in populations situated in heavily traveled areas. Summary of Research/Monitoring Activities The International Alvar Conservation Initiative (IACI), coordinated by The Nature Conservancy’s Great Lakes Program office in Chicago, Illinois, studied alvars across their range in North America and produced detailed, standardized field inventories of the majority of significant alvar sites in Ontario, Michigan, New York and Ohio. An ecological theme study of Ontario alvars was conducted in 2000 by the Federation of Ontario Naturalists (FON). This project looked at alvars in the Ontario context, collected additional field data, ranked sites, and made recommendations on conservation. Population monitoring and inventory work is ongoing on both Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula through a variety of funding mechanisms and partnerships. Most recently, Parks Canada completed a detailed Lakeside Daisy inventory at Bruce Peninsula National Park in 2006. Lakeside Daisy habitat mapping on the Bruce Peninsula also was completed in 2006. The OMNR invites the public to report sightings of rare species, including the Lakeside Daisy, on their website. In support of the Recovery Strategy for the Alvar Ecosystems of the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island Regions in Ontario, a number of previously unsurveyed alvar sites in the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island regions were inventoried during the summers of 2004- 2006. Summary of Recovery Activities Several key alvars have been protected in the last 10 years. Further site ranking exercises were recently completed for both the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island in order to prioritize areas for conservation and protection. Priorities are linked to stewardship opportunities. At Bruce Peninsula National Park, Misery Bay Provincial Nature Reserve, and private nature reserves such as the Bruce Alvar Nature Reserve, management has focused on maintaining the integrity of alvar habitat. This has included routing trails away from sensitive areas and construction of boardwalks. The boardwalk at the Bruce Alvar Nature Reserve was constructed entirely by volunteers. On Manitoulin Island, conservation efforts have resulted in the protection of the new Queen Mum Park and the FON Quarry Bay Nature Reserve. Education and communication with landowners is ongoing. An atlas focusing on important conservation areas in the Bruce Peninsula, including alvar habitat, was released in November of 2005 by the Wilderness League chapter of Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS), in partnership with many other organizations. This atlas has been distributed to industry developers and is available to the public on the internet. A considerable amount of public contact and education about alvars has taken place, mostly due to the IACI. Hundreds of landowners with alvar habitat were contacted when permission was sought to survey their lands for the IACI. This was followed up with stewardship packages given to many of these landowners. Through this effort the word "alvar" has become a familiar term in common usage in the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island region. Various media publicized alvars during the IACI’s Alvar Workshop in June 1998. The Nature Conservancy Canada (NCC), the FON, and The Nature Conservancy – Great Lakes Program have featured alvars in their publications and on their web sites. Education and outreach materials focusing on Ontario species at risk, including the Lakeside Daisy, have been developed and distributed on the internet by Ontario MNR & Ontario Nature. URLs: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources: Natural Heritage Information Centre Factsheet:http://nhic.mnr.gov.on.ca/MNR/nhic/documents/brochure.pdf Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources: Report a Rare Specieshttp://nhic.mnr.gov.on.ca/MNR/nhic/species/species_report.cfm Ontario Biodiversity: Species at Riskhttp://www.rom.on.ca/ontario/risk.php?doc_type=fact&lang=&id=290 CPAWS: Bruce Peninsula Atlas: (available for download)http://www.cpaws.org/community-atlas/bruce.php


PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

7 record(s) found.

COSEWIC Status Reports

  • COSEWIC assessment and status report the lakeside daisy Hymenoxys herbacea in Canada (2002-05-01)

    Hymenoxys herbacea (E.L. Greene) Cusick, Asteraceae, is a small, perennial plant that consists of one or more low-lying rosettes (up to 10 cm in height). The mature leaves are dark green, moderately hairy and have a thick cuticle that is interrupted by numerous stomata. From a floral meristem initiated in the fall, H. herbacea produces a solitary inflorescence in spring, which consists of bright yellow ray (female) and disk (hermaphrodite) florets (De Mauro, 1988).

Response Statements

  • Response Statements - Lakeside Daisy (2004-04-21)

    A response statement is a communications document that identifies how the Minister of the Environment intends to respond to the assessment of a wildlife species by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). The document provides a start to the listing and recovery process for those species identified as being at risk, and provides timelines for action to the extent possible.

Recovery Strategies

  • Recovery Strategy for the Lakeside Daisy (Hymenoxys herbacea) in Canada (2011-03-24)

    Lakeside Daisy is listed as Threatened under Schedule 1 of the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). In Ontario, it is listed as Threatened on the Species at Risk in Ontario (SARO) List under the Endangered Species Act, 2007 (ESA). The global range of Lakeside Daisy is restricted to the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin Island Regions of Ontario and six sites in the United States, some of which are re-introductions. The Canadian range of Lakeside Daisy accounts for 95% or more of the global population.

Action Plans

  • Multi-species Action Plan for Bruce Peninsula National Park and Fathom Five National Marine Park of Canada (2016-11-22)

    Bruce Peninsula National Park (BPNP) and Fathom Five National Marine Park (FFNMP) lie at the tip of the Bruce Peninsula which separates Georgian Bay from Lake Huron. The peninsula is 90 km in length and its most prominent feature is the Niagara Escarpment which runs along the entire eastern edge. Within BPNP, the escarpment forms the Georgian Bay shoreline and is recognized as part of the core area of the Niagara Escarpment UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve.  BPNP was established by the federal government in 1987 to protect a representative example of the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Lowlands natural region. Because of the fragmented nature of the park properties, many of the stresses on the park’s ecosystem originate from outside its boundaries. For this reason, First Nations, local residents, non-governmental organizations, and other groups and land users play an important role in managing, restoring, and protecting the northern Bruce ecosystem. 


  • Order Acknowledging Receipt of the Assessments Done Pursuant to Subsection 23(1) of the Species at Risk Act (2004-04-21)

    This Order acknowledges receipt by the Governor in Council of the assessments of the status of wildlife species done pursuant to subsection 23(1) of the Species at Risk Act (SARA) by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). The purpose of SARA is to prevent wildlife species from being extirpated or becoming extinct, to provide for the recovery of wildlife species that are extirpated, endangered or threatened as a result of human activity and to manage species of special concern to prevent them from becoming endangered or threatened.
  • Order Amending Schedules 1 to 3 to the Species at Risk Act (volume 139, number 2, 2005) (2005-01-12)

    Schedule 1, the List of Wildlife Species at Risk of the Species at Risk Act (SARA), is amended by Order of the Governor in Council (GIC), on the recommendation of the Minister of the Environment, by the addition of 73 species. This Order is based on scientific assessments by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) and follows consultations with provincial and territorial governments, Aboriginal peoples, stakeholders and the public, and analysis of costs and benefits to Canadians.

Consultation Documents

  • Consultation on Amending the List of Species Under the Species At Risk Act: March 2004 (2004-03-03)

    The Government of Canada proclaimed the Species at Risk Act (SARA) on June 5, 2003 as part of its strategy for the protection of wildlife species at risk. Attached to the Act is Schedule 1, the list of the species that receive protection under SARA, hereinafter referred to as the 'SARA list'. Canadians are invited to comment on whether all or some of the species included in this document should be added to the SARA list.
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