Species Profile

Butternut

Scientific Name: Juglans cinerea
Taxonomy Group: Vascular Plants
COSEWIC Range: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: April 2017
COSEWIC Status: Endangered
COSEWIC Status Criteria: A2ae+3e+4ae
COSEWIC Reason for Designation: This widespread early-successional tree of the Eastern Deciduous Forest occurs throughout southern Ontario and Québec, and locally in New Brunswick. The species was formerly a significant source of wood for cabinetry and instrument making and continues to hold cultural significance for some Indigenous communities in eastern Canada. The fungal disease Butternut Canker has infected almost all Canadian trees, is causing rapid mortality, and is projected to cause a near 100% decline from the pre-canker population of this species within one generation. There is evidence that some trees may be showing resistance. Ornamental introductions in Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island are not included in the assessment.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Endangered in November 2003. Status re-examined and confirmed in April 2017.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Endangered
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2005-07-14

Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.

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Quick Links: | Photo | Description | Distribution and Population | Habitat | Biology | Threats | Protection | Recovery Initiatives | National Recovery Program | Documents

Image of Butternut

Butternut Photo 1

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Description

Butternut (Juglans cinerea) is a medium to large, deciduous tree of the walnut family reaching a height of up to 30 m. Its leaves are densely hairy, alternate, and composed of 11-17 pinnately-arranged, stalkless leaflets. The twigs are stout and hairy with a central pith divided into chambers. The Butternut fruit is a sticky-hairy, egg-shaped husk enclosing a single two-chambered nut within a hard, jagged-ridged shell. Butternut is one of only two walnut species native to Canada, where it is at the northern limit of its native global distribution. The New Brunswick subpopulation is an outlier with noteworthy genetic divergence from the species elsewhere. The species is prized for its wood and edible nuts and was an important source of food and medicine for First Nations people. Butternut supports numerous specialist insect species, including the weevil Eubalus parochus and the metallic wood-boring beetle Agrilus juglandis, possible Butternut-obligate species that may be threatened in Canada by Butternut decline. (Updated: 2018/01/19)

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Distribution and Population

Butternut occurs across much of the central and eastern United States and small portions of southeastern Canada, occurring south to Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. Within this latitudinal range, the species occurs in all states west to Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri. Butternut’s native Canadian range is restricted to southern Ontario and Quebec (primarily south of the area bounded by Georgian Bay, the Ottawa Valley and the Quebec City region), and western and southern portions of New Brunswick. Population size is not well documented. Remaining occurrences are still very incompletely documented and it is unclear how many of the 863 occurrences compiled by Canadian conservation data centres are still extant. Experts estimate that from tens of thousands to 100,000+ live trees remain in Ontario and Quebec and thousands to 10,000+ are in New Brunswick, but numbers are declining rapidly. Monitoring data from 1,221 trees in 60 sites across the Ontario range show 99.7% Butternut Canker infection rate, 5.43% annualized mortality from 2008 to 2014-2015, limited seedling recruitment and almost no recruitment into mature age classes. Canker infection in Quebec is also almost complete and mortality is significant. In New Brunswick, the last region reached by the disease, canker infection was 70% in 2013-2014 and dead trees are now common. Population decline from pre-canker levels is probably already well over 50%. The well documented (but single time interval) decline rate in Ontario translates to 91% loss from current levels in one generation and 100% in just short of two generations. Population declines have been estimated to exceed 90% in Michigan, Wisconsin and the southeast. (Updated: 2018/01/19)

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Habitat

Butternut occurs primarily in neutral to calcareous soils of pH 5.5 to 8, often in regions with underlying limestone, and is generally absent from acidic regions. It tends to reach greatest abundance in rich well-drained mesic loams in floodplains, streambanks, terraces and ravine slopes, but can occur in a wide range of other situations. In closed-canopy stands, it must be in the overstory to thrive. Seedling establishment, growth and survival to maturity are most frequent in stand openings, riparian zones and forest edges. (Updated: 2018/01/19)

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Biology

Butternut is a shade-intolerant deciduous tree that rarely lives more than 100 years. It flowers from April to June with separate male and female flowers on the same tree maturing at different times to encourage out-crossing. It is wind-pollinated and can hybridize with Japanese, English, Little and Manchurian walnuts. The fruit matures in September and October in the year of pollination. Seed bearing starts about age 20 and peaks at age 30 to 60. Generation time is estimated at 45 years, the median of this range. Good seed crops occur irregularly with light crops in intervening years. The seeds typically germinate the spring following seed fall and do not survive more than 2 years in the soil. Younger Butternut is capable of vegetative propagation from stump sprouting. Seed dispersal over land is primarily animal-mediated, and seeds may travel long distances by water flow. Pollen may be disseminated over distances exceeding 1 km. (Updated: 2018/01/19)

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Threats

The foremost threat is Butternut Canker, a lethal disease caused by the fungal pathogen Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum, thought to be introduced in North America, likely from Asia. Butternut Canker kills trees of all ages. Saplings are often quickly killed, while mature trees may survive up to 30 years before dying from severe crown loss and girdling by coalescing stem cankers. Seeds from infected trees can be internally infected, and recruitment into mature age classes may have nearly ceased in Canada. In Canada, Butternut Canker was first detected in Quebec in 1990, Ontario in 1991 (where it was present by 1972 based on canker age) and New Brunswick in 1997. It now occurs throughout Butternut’s native range, affecting nearly all trees in Ontario and Quebec and 70+% of trees in New Brunswick. Putatively tolerant trees are rare, genetically-based long-term disease tolerance is not well demonstrated anywhere, and some observed tolerance is associated with hybridization with the exotic Japanese Walnut. Additional threats to Butternut include wood harvesting, forest conversion to other uses, and hybridization with Japanese Walnut. Naturally low genetic diversity may be a limiting factor. (Updated: 2018/01/19)

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Protection

Federal Protection

The Butternut is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.

Provincial and Territorial Protection

To know if this species is protected by provincial or territorial laws, consult the provinces' and territories' websites.

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Recovery Initiatives

Status of Recovery Planning

Recovery Strategies :

Name Recovery Strategy for the Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) in Canada
Status Final posting on SAR registry

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Recovery Progress and Activities

Summary of Progress to Date The Canadian Wildlife Service in Ontario initiated a national approach to Butternut recovery and oversaw the development of a national Recovery Strategy. The long-term recovery goal (>20 years) for Butternut is to achieve viable, self-sustaining, ecologically functioning, and broadly distributed populations within its current range in Canada. This will be achieved when trees can be protected against the harmful effects of Butternut canker. Although there have been many groups across the country participating in gathering information on the location of the species, the condition of the trees, and the extent of the canker, much information and research is still needed regarding resistance to the disease and developing approaches to managing the disease. Research and Recovery Activities Several initiatives have been undertaken by various groups and agencies since the discovery of Butternut canker in Canada. Some research and recovery activities that have been completed within the three provinces that make up Butternut’s Canadian range are as follows: In New Brunswick, a Butternut conservation strategy was developed by the New Brunswick Gene Conservation Working Group. The Working Group identified knowledge gaps and set goals to identify and locate Butternut populations in the province; assess the frequency of canker infection and estimate mortality; develop storage methods; and examine the genetic diversity of Butternut and check for the presence of hybrids. Conservation initiatives were undertaken by the National Tree Seed Centre in order to preserve valuable Butternut germplasm (e.g. buds and cells). To enable woodlot owners to identify Butternut trees and symptoms of the canker, an educational program was set up by the Canadian Forest Service (CFS) (Atlantic Region) and the New Brunswick Federation of Woodlot Owners. A database was set up by the CFS Atlantic Forestry Centre to maintain information provided by the public on the location and health of trees. One plot has been established by the CFS Atlantic Forestry Centre to monitor development of the disease over time, and additional areas have been surveyed. The New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources obtains information that assists in determining Butternut range in the province through three ongoing programs (Photo Interpretation, Forest Development Survey, and Permanent Sample Plots). They also sponsored a Butternut canker workshop in 2004. In Ontario, the provincial government (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources) initiated a Butternut conservation project for southern Ontario in 1994 with goals of locating, identifying, grafting, and maintaining potentially resistant individuals in order to establish a breeding program and ultimately a species recovery program, and to develop a long-term conservation strategy for the Butternut in Ontario. Field surveys in 1995, involving some 140 sites, identified 10 sites where the Butternut appeared to be resistant to the disease. Grafting experiments were attempted in spring of 1996, however, at two of the three sites selected for a breeding program, the survival rate was low due to vandalism and graft/climate incompatibility. In 1999 and 2000, small Butternut plantings were established at four demonstration sites using seeds from various regions of southern Ontario to explore adaptive genetic variation. Communications with private woodlot owners by letter, displays, presentations, and newsletters has resulted in increased information on Butternut locations and health in Ontario. Educational brochures and a website about the canker disease and the maintenance and reproduction of the Butternut also have been produced in Ontario to further communications with woodlot owners. A provincial Butternut recovery team was formed in Ontario. Recent efforts by this team include the development and distribution of a standardized tree assessment form and a regional program to collect seed from healthy Butternut trees in support of a tree-planting program within the Rideau watershed. Inventories and health assessments are ongoing in Ontario Provincial Parks. In 2006, a Butternut canker meeting was organized by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and the most recent scientific information and best management options on Butternut canker were presented to resource managers and local researchers. In Quebec, in 1994 the CFS and the provincial government (Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune) assessed the genetic variability of Butternut, researched the biology of the fungal pathogen, and tried to establish a conservation strategy. Seeds were collected at several sites throughout Quebec and were planted at a nursery. The following year the canker was observed on one-year-old seedlings, which were apparently contaminated by infected nuts through the scar at the point of attachment of the nut to the stem. In the spring of 1996, seedlings that appeared to be free of the disease were planted at four plantations in Quebec, three of them outside the natural range of the species and a fourth inside the range, to monitor fungal infection. Annual inspections completed in the first and second year after planting revealed 4% and 3.1% infection of seedlings, respectively. Seedling production was stopped following these observations to avoid spreading the pathogen. The Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune then experimented with a variety of techniques for decontaminating the nuts. Some have proven effective, but improvements are needed. A one year project, led by Natural Resources Canada with participation from Environment Canada, Parks Canada Agency, National Defense, and Gatineau Park, to inventory and assess the health of Butternut on federal lands was completed in 2006. URLs National Resources Canada: Butternut Canker in Ontario:http://www.glfc.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/foresthealth/butternut_e.html New Brunswick Natural Resources: Status of Forest Pests:http://www.gnb.ca/0078/fpm/status.asp Forest Gene Conservation Association:http://www.fgca.net/conservation/sar/butternut.aspx Ontario Landowner Resource Center: Butternut Canker Identification Sheet:http://www.lrconline.com/Extension_Notes_English/pdf/bttrnt.pdf Canadian Forest Service, Atlantic Forestry Centre: Butternut http://www.atl.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/index-e/what-e/publications-e/afcpublications-e/mx212-e/butternut-e.html

Documents

PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.

47 record(s) found.

Reports on the Progress of Recovery Document Implementation

COSEWIC Status Reports

  • COSEWIC Assessment and status report on the Butternut (Juglans cinerea) in Canada (2018-01-17)

    Butternut (Juglans cinerea) is a medium to large, deciduous tree of the walnut family reaching a height of up to 30 m. Its leaves are densely hairy, alternate, and composed of 11-17 pinnately-arranged, stalkless leaflets. The twigs are stout and hairy with a central pith divided into chambers. The Butternut fruit is a sticky-hairy, egg-shaped husk enclosing a single two-chambered nut within a hard, jagged-ridged shell.
  • COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Butternut Juglans cinerea in Canada (2003-11-01)

    Butternut (Juglans cinerea) is a small to medium-sized tree of the walnut family that seldom exceeds 30 metres in height. In deeper soils it commonly has a central taproot and numerous widespread lateral roots. The densely hairy, alternate compound leaves have 11-17 pinnately arranged leaflets; these are nearly stalkless and attached opposite to one another. The yellowish-orange twigs are stout and hairy with a central pith that is divided into chambers. The ovoid fruit is a single-seeded nut with the husk covered with a dense layer of short sticky hairs and an inner shell with jagged ridges. The species is distinguished from the similar black walnut by such characteristics as its hairy twigs and leaves, terminal leaflet that is as large as the lateral leaflets, and oval hairy fruit with jagged ridges on the shell of the nut. In contrast, black walnut has smooth or only slightly hairy twigs and leaves with the terminal leaflet missing or smaller than the lateral ones; it has a globular, nearly hairless fruit with rounded ridges on the surface of the shell.

Response Statements

  • Response Statement - Butternut (2004-10-22)

    A widespread tree found as single trees or small groups in deciduous and mixed forests of southern Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Butternut canker, which has caused high rates of infection and mortality in the United States, has been detected in all three provinces. High rates of infection and mortality have been observed in parts of Ontario and are predicted for the rest of the Canadian population.
  • Response Statement - Butternut (2018-01-18)

    This widespread early-successional tree of the Eastern Deciduous Forest occurs throughout southern Ontario and Québec, and locally in New Brunswick. The species was formerly a significant source of wood for cabinetry and instrument making and continues to hold cultural significance for some Indigenous communities in eastern Canada. The fungal disease Butternut Canker has infected almost all Canadian trees, is causing rapid mortality, and is projected to cause a near 100% decline from the pre-canker population of this species within one generation. There is evidence that some trees may be showing resistance. Ornamental introductions in Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island are not included in the assessment.

Recovery Strategies

  • Recovery Strategy for the Butternut (Juglans cinerea) in Canada (2010-10-01)

    The Species at Risk Act (SARA, Section 37) requires the competent ministers to prepare recovery strategies for listed extirpated, endangered or threatened species. Butternut was listed as Endangered under SARA in July 2005. The Minister of the Environment and the Minister responsible for the Parks Canada Agency are the competent ministers for the recovery of the Butternut. Environment Canada led the development of this recovery strategy working in cooperation with the Parks Canada Agency. It has also been prepared in cooperation with the National Butternut Recovery Coordinating Team, the governments of Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. All responsible jurisdictions reviewed and supported the request to post the strategy.

Action Plans

  • Multi-species Action Plan for La Mauricie National Park and National Historic Sites of La Mauricie and Western Quebec regions (2020-10-06)

    The Multi-species Action Plan for La Mauricie National Park and Canada's national historic sites (NHS) that are part of the Mauricie and Western Quebec Field Unit (MWQFU) applies to the land and waters within the boundaries of La Mauricie National Park (LMNP) and 13 NHSs in Quebec: Obadjiwan–Fort Témiscamingue; Forges-du-Saint-Maurice; Fort Chambly; Fort Lennox; Battle of the Châteauguay; Coteau-du-Lac; Carillon Barracks; Manoir Papineau; Louis-Joseph Papineau; Louis S. St-Laurent; Fur Trade at Lachine National Historic Site; Sir Wilfrid Laurier; and Sir George-Étienne Cartier. This plan meets the requirements for action plans set out in the Species at Risk Act (SARA; section 47) for species requiring an action plan that regularly occur on these sites. Measures described in this plan will also provide benefits for other species of conservation concern that regularly occur in LMNP and on associated NHSs.
  • Multi-species Action Plan for Point Pelee National Park of Canada and Niagara National Historic Sites of Canada (2016-07-05)

    The Multi-species Action Plan for Point Pelee National Park of Canada and the Niagara National Historic Sites of Canada applies to lands and waters occurring within the boundaries of the two sites: Point Pelee National Park of Canada (PPNP) and the Niagara National Historic Sites of Canada (NNHS). The NNHS is being used as a term to collectively refer to two locations in the Niagara region that consist of three National Historic Sites: Fort George National Historic Site, Battlefield of Fort George National Historic Site, and Butler’s Barracks National Historic Sites of Canada. The plan meets the requirements for action plans set out in the Species At Risk Act (SARA s.47) for species requiring an action plan and that regularly occur in these sites. Measures described in this plan will also provide benefits for other species of conservation concern that regularly occur at PPNP and at NNHS.
  • Multi-species Action Plan for Rouge National Urban Park of Canada (2021-10-07)

    The Multi-species Action Plan for Rouge National Urban Park of Canada applies to all federally owned lands and waters managed by Parks Canada in Rouge National Urban Park (RNUP), including Bead Hill National Historic Site. To the extent possible, it has been prepared in cooperation with Environment and Climate Change Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the province of Ontario, the Rouge National Urban Park First Nations Advisory Circle, and environmental non-government organizations as per section 48(1) of SARA. The plan meets the requirements for action plans set out in the Species at Risk Act (SARA s.47) for species requiring an action plan and that regularly occur at this site. Measures described in this plan will also provide benefits for other species of conservation concern that regularly occur at RNUP. In light of the current Covid-19 pandemic, the 60-day public comment period on the proposed Multi-species Action Plan for Rouge National Urban Park of Canada has been extended to 90 days to provide sufficient time for feedback.
  • Multi-species Action Plan for Thousand Islands National Park of Canada (2016-03-29)

    The Multi-species Action Plan for Thousand Islands National Park of Canada is a Species At Risk Act action plan (SARA s.47) for four species: American Water-willow (Justicia americana), Butternut (Juglans cinerea), Deerberry (Vaccinium stamineum), and Pugnose Shiner (Notropis anogenus). The plan also outlines measures to monitor and manage 30 other species of conservation concern that regularly occur in the park. This plan applies only to lands and waters occurring within the boundaries of Thousand Islands National Park of Canada.

Orders

  • Order Acknowledging Receipt of the Assessments Done Pursuant to Subsection 23(1) of the Act (2004-10-19)

    The Order acknowledges receipt by the Governor in Council of the assessments of the status of wildlife species done pursuant to subsection 23(1) of the Species at Risk Act (SARA) by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). The purpose of SARA is to prevent wildlife species from being extirpated or becoming extinct, to provide for the recovery of wildlife species that are extirpated, endangered or threatened as a result of human activity and to manage species of special concern to prevent them from becoming endangered or threatened.
  • Order Amending Schedules 1 to 3 to the Species at Risk Act (volume 139, number 15, 2005) (2005-07-27)

    The Minister of the Environment is recommending, pursuant to section 27 of the Species at Risk Act (SARA), that 43 species be added to Schedule 1, the List of Wildlife Species at Risk. This recommendation is based on scientific assessments by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) and on consultations with governments, Aboriginal peoples, wildlife management boards, stakeholders and the Canadian public.

COSEWIC Annual Reports

  • COSEWIC Annual Report - 2004 (2004-09-16)

    2004 Annual Report to the Canadian Endangered Species Conservation Council (CESCC) from the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.
  • COSEWIC Annual Report 2016 to 2017 (2017-10-24)

    Over the past year COSEWIC re-examined the status of 40 wildlife species; of these, the majority (78 %) were reassessed at the same or lower level of risk. Of a total of 73 species assessed 11 were assigned the status of Not at Risk (8 re-assessments and 3 new assessments). To date and with the submission of this report, COSEWIC’s assessments now include 735 wildlife species in various risk categories including 321 Endangered, 172 Threatened, 219 Special Concern and 23 Extirpated (i.e. - no longer found in the wild in Canada). In addition 16 species have been assessed as Extinct, 58 have been designated as Data Deficient and 186 were assessed and assigned Not at Risk status.

Permits and Related Agreements

  • Explanation for issuing permit(#13), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2006-05-01)

    Fauna and flora survey and identification of potential habitats for species at risk on the territory of Kahnawake.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#14), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2006-05-05)

    To propagate Butternut trees by collecting and transplanting seedlings and planting seeds of same. Additional permission is granted to the permittee and his nominees to conduct a routine and/or emergency maintenance programme of Butternut Trees as located on the properties as specified on this permit. This programme will include selective branch pruning in order to maintain the health and viability of the specimens.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#18), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2006-05-17)

    To propagate Butternut trees by transplanting seedlings.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#19), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2006-06-01)

    Activities may include any of the following for any species: Collection of small amounts of seed (<1%) for propagation ex situ for the pupose of studying seed viability, germination condisions and rates. Collection of a mall proportion (<1%) of inflorescences or flowers for the purpose of determining fertility, seed predation rates, etc. Removal of a small number (<0.1%) of individuals of annual species (e.g. Agalinus spp.) for research on habitat and microsite requirements. Collection of seed for the purpose of propagation ex situ plants to provide material for research and/or for restoration projects. Mapping location, counting and setting up permanent study quadrats may sometime involve accidental trampling of some plants and portions of some habitat. This will be kept to a minimum. Some perturbation of habitat may occur during removal of invasive species. Some experimental purturbation of habitat for restoration purposes may be done in locations where species at risk are thought to be extirpated.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#30), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2006-07-13)

    Measure and count Butternut tree on selected federal properties, locate the main populations on each properties, assess the infection level from the butternut canker in plantations.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#46502), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2021-03-01)

    The Forest Gene Conservation Association of Ontario (FGCA) is archiving three butternut trees from the Niagara Shores property, part of the Battlefield of Fort George National Historic Site of Canada. To archive a butternut tree, staff from the FGCA will collect 3-year old scions from the crown of the tree. To collect scions from the crown, either tree pruning poles will be used to cut the branches or an arborist will climb into the canopy using tree climbing equipment (ropes and harnesses) to clip the branches. Afterwards, these live branches will be brought back to a greenhouse and will be grafted to the stems of black walnut trees. In the future these grafted butternut will produce seed that will then be planted. Butternut is threatened across its range by a canker fungus. The butternuts that are selected for archiving are healthy trees that are not showing signs of the canker fungus. It is hoped, that the future seedlings created from the archive program will have resistance to the canker fungus because they were propagated from clones of the parent trees that showed resistance in the field. Conserving genetic diversity through the Butternut Archive Program is important in the recovery of this species.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#mau-2009-4272), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2009-10-20)

    The natural resource surveys realized in La Mauricie National Park have confirmed the presence of Butternut (Juglans cinerea) at a few sites. It is known that the Butternut is affected by a canker (Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum) htat causes premature death of the tree. Butternut is currently listed in Appendix1 of the Species at Risk Act. Canadian Forest Service (CFS) has proceeded to survey the trees at this site and confirmed the presence of trees affected with the disease. The project's objective (realized in 2009) is the establishment of sample plots permitting the measure of the buttenrut canker's progression on the Quebec territory by integrating the site localized on Rivière St-Maurice and Mattawin river in La Mauricie National Park. The following data will be collected: 1. rate of progression of the disease within a tree and within the population. 2. Rate of decay caused by the butternut canker. 3. The proportion of trees affected by the canker and the rate of mortality 4. Amount and location of cankers on a single tree, the proportion of the tree's circonference affected by the canker and the rate of decay at the tree's mast associated with the spread of the disease. The monitoring protocol on the butternut canker is aimed at evaluating the rate of progression of the disease in Quebec and also in assessing how this disease affects butternuts. It also permits us to identify individual trees that may demonstrate some resilience to the disease. This study will help us in acquiring information in order to ensure the species' survival.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#mau-2009-4272B), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2009-10-20)

    The natural resource surveys realized in La Mauricie National Park have confirmed the presence of Butternut (Juglans cinerea) at a few sites. It is known that the Butternut is affected by a canker (Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum) htat causes premature death of the tree. Butternut is currently listed in Appendix1 of the Species at Risk Act. Canadian Forest Service (CFS) has proceeded to survey the trees at this site and confirmed the presence of trees affected with the disease. The project's objective (realized in 2009) is the establishment of sample plots permitting the measure of the buttenrut canker's progression on the Quebec territory by integrating the site localized on Rivière St-Maurice and Mattawin river in La Mauricie National Park. The following data will be collected: 1. rate of progression of the disease within a tree and within the population. 2. Rate of decay caused by the butternut canker. 3. The proportion of trees affected by the canker and the rate of mortality 4. Amount and location of cankers on a single tree, the proportion of the tree's circonference affected by the canker and the rate of decay at the tree's mast associated with the spread of the disease. The monitoring protocol on the butternut canker is aimed at evaluating the rate of progression of the disease in Quebec and also in assessing how this disease affects butternuts. It also permits us to identify individual trees that may demonstrate some resilience to the disease. This study will help us in acquiring information in order to ensure the species' survival.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#PPNP-2013-15), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2014-10-20)

    Parks Canada staff and contractors will be affecting individual species at risk trees when annually mowing grass and/or herbaceous vegetation, trimming woody vegetation, and removing vegetative debris along roadsides in Point Pelee National Park. These trees include the Common Hoptree, Dwarf Hackberry, Red Mulberry, Kentucky Coffee-tree and Butternut.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#PPNP-2013-15), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2017-11-01)

    Parks Canada staff and contractors will be affecting individual species at risk trees when annually mowing grass and/or herbaceous vegetation, trimming woody vegetation, and removing vegetative debris along roadsides in Point Pelee National Park. These trees include the Common Hoptree, Dwarf Hackberry, Red Mulberry, Kentucky Coffee-tree and Butternut.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#PPNP-2016-21159), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2016-03-01)

    Butternut trees that are suspected to be disease-resistant in Point Pelee National Park are being archived. Dormant scion material is collected from the tree(s) in March to clone the tree through grafting in early April. Very careful pruning is done to collect up to 50 scions from each tree, which involves cutting from 3 year old twigs. Not more than three trees will be archived.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#RES-173), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2015-02-09)

    Following the work of evaluation of health status of butternut in the protected areas of the CWS_Qc, it turns out that remediation is necessary in order to protect the settlement of Butternuts. - Sanitation Cup - clarification Cup - Disposal of residues of cuts Cup available to cut work residues are planned on the Cap Tourmente NWA and the NWA du Lac Saint-François RNF_Cap Tourmente - Cup of sanitation for 107 dead trees and/or strongly cankers - clarification of 18 other trees Lac Saint-François NWA Cup - Cup of sanitation for 22 dead trees or strongly cankers - clarification for 4 other Butternuts Cup
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#Rideau-2018-01), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2018-01-30)

    Incidental harm to an individual butternut tree will occur as a result of two separate construction activities. Excavation will occur on the northern and eastern side of the tree to facilitate the replacement of a section of the canal basin wall. Additional excavation on the eastern side of the tree is projected to occur in order to construct an access ramp into the adjacent excavated area. The total amount of root mass removal is unknown but could reach 50% of the rooted zone. . It is possible that the removal of a significant amount of the root zone will lead to the decline and eventual death of the tree.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#RNUP-2020-35658), persuant to the provisions of section 74 of SARA (2020-05-25)

    This project will focus on the inventory, management and conservation of butternut through a comprehensive park-wide inventory and subsequent implementation of a five-year archiving program. The purpose of this project is to fill current knowledge gaps for the Rouge National Urban Park population and to contribute to objectives outlined in the National Butternut Recovery Strategy. This project will involve visual surveys, possible collection and examination of twigs for hybrid characteristics, collection of three leaves for genetic testing from individuals whose genetic makeup is uncertain, and potential collection of up to 50 scions from a maximum of 5 putatively canker-resistant individuals to contribute to a grafting and vegetative propagation program.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#RNUP-2021-39441), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2021-06-15)

    This project will focus on the inventory, management and conservation of butternut through a comprehensive inventory at the Rouge National Urban Park. The purpose of this project is to fill current knowledge gaps about the population at the park and to contribute to objectives outlined in the National Butternut Recovery Strategy. This project will involve visual surveys, possible collection and examination of twigs for hybrid characteristics, and potential collection of up to three leaves for genetic testing from individuals whose genetic makeup is uncertain.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#RNUP-BMP-1), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2016-02-10)

    This activity involves the trimming, removal and planting of trees and shrubs for routine maintenance purposes in Rouge National Urban Park of Canada. Such purposes include, but are not limited to, reducing risks to safety and assets, preventing encroachment on agricultural land and impeding farm operations. Species at risk that may be trimmed, planted and removed include Butternut and Kentucky coffee tree.
  • Explanation for issuing permit(#SARA-OR-2007-0056), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2007-05-24)

    An inventory of species and their abundance will be recorded using walking transects. No animals or plants will be collected although some may be handled to verify identification. Any animals handled will be done so according to the animal care committee protocol of CWS.
  • >> See more Permits and Related Agreements documents

Consultation Documents

  • Consultation on Amending the List of Species under the Species at Risk Act: November 2004 (2004-11-23)

    The Government of Canada proclaimed the Species at Risk Act (SARA) on June 5, 2003 as part of its strategy for the protection of wildlife species at risk. Attached to the act is Schedule 1, the list of the species that receive protection under SARA, hereinafter referred to as the 'SARA list'. Canadians are invited to comment on whether all or some of the species included in this document should be added to the SARA list.
  • Consultation on Amending the List of Species under the Species at Risk Act: Terrestrial Species January 2018 (2018-01-26)

    The Government of Canada is committed to preventing the disappearance of wildlife species at risk from our lands. As part of its strategy for realizing that commitment, on June 5, 2003, the Government of Canada proclaimed the Species at Risk Act (SARA). Attached to the Act is Schedule 1, the list of the species provided for under SARA, also called the List of Wildlife Species at Risk. Extirpated, Endangered and Threatened species on Schedule 1 benefit from the protection afforded by the prohibitions and from recovery planning requirements under SARA. Special Concern species benefit from its management planning requirements. Schedule 1 has grown from the original 233 to 555 wildlife species at risk. In 2017, final listing decisions were made for 44 terrestrial species and 15 aquatic species. Of these 59 species, 35 were new additions, sixteen were reclassifications, three had a change made to how they are defined, two were removed from Schedule 1, one was referred back to COSEWIC for further evaluation and two were the object of ‘do not list’ decisions. In 2017, on the recommendation of the Minister of the Environment, the Governor in Council approved listing proposals for 45 wildlife species. It is proposed that 21 species be added to Schedule 1, 11 be reclassified, 12 would have a change made to how they are defined, and one would be referred back to COSEWIC for further evaluation. The listing proposals were published in Canada Gazette, part I for a 30-day public comment period and final listing decisions for all 45 species are expected by August of 2018. Please submit your comments by May 22, 2018, for terrestrial species undergoing normal consultations and by October 22, 2018, for terrestrial species undergoing extended consultations. For a description of the consultation paths these species will undergo, please visit the Species at Risk Public Registry (SAR) website.

Exceptions

  • Public Registry Notice for s.83 Exceptions - Former Camp Ipperwash (2015-03-06)

    As per the Memorandum of Understanding between DND, Environment Canada, and the Parks Canada Agency: 6.1 c) Activities occurring on Defence Establishments that are considered necessary for public safety in accordance with paragraph a) and authorized under the National Defence Act and the Explosives Act are: Remediation of contaminated sites; and Securing, handling, destruction or disposal of unsafe munitions, including unexploded explosive ordnance.
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