Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth
Scientific Name: Prodoxus quinquepunctellus
Taxonomy Group: Arthropods
COSEWIC Range: Alberta
COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: May 2013
COSEWIC Status: Endangered
COSEWIC Status Criteria: B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)
COSEWIC Reason for Designation: The Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth is known from only two sites in Canada, one of which was discovered in 2011. This moth species is an obligate stem borer on the stalks of Soapweed. Larval survival is dependent on the mutualistic relationship between the Soapweed and its pollinator Yucca Moth. The flowers on non-pollinated Soapweed stalks whither faster than pollinated stalks, resulting in almost complete mortality of immature life stages of Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth. The loss of flowers or seeds as a result of ungulate herbivory is an ongoing threat, while in the long term Soapweed populations may be limited by the lack of fire and other disturbances that provide sites for the establishment of seedlings.
COSEWIC History of Status Designation: Designated Endangered in April 2006. Status re-examined and confirmed in May 2013.
SARA Status: Schedule 1, Endangered
Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2007-12-13
Please note that this information is provided for general information purposes only. For the most up to date and accurate list of species listed under the Species at Risk Act, please see the Justice Laws Website.
The Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth has a 11-21 mm wingspan. The forewings are white and can have up to 18 small dark spots. (Updated 2017/05/24)
Distribution and Population
Yucca moths are found within Soapweed stands throughout the Great Plains from Texas north to Alberta and from the Rocky Mountains east to the Mississippi River. In Canada, Soapweed occurs at three locations: along the Milk River (Pinhorn, AB), its tributary, the Lost River (Onefour, AB) and Rockglen, SK. There are several single plants or small patches of Soapweed reported in southern Alberta and Saskatchewan; however, most of these plants were transplanted from native populations in Alberta or the United States. (Updated 2017/05/24)
Soapweed occupies well-drained, sparsely vegetated, south-facing coulee slopes along the Milk River drainage in southeastern Alberta and in Rockglen, SK. The area has hot, dry summers and low precipitation with large daily temperature variation and weather extremes like high winds or heavy rain. Coulee habitat of this nature is rare and naturally limiting to the Soapweed. Intervening prairie, which is needed for range expansion, may have declined in quality for Soapweed because of fire suppression and lack of disturbance. (Updated 2017/05/24)
Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moths are obligate stem-borers of Soapweed in Canada. Adults rest in flowers during the day and then oviposit in Soapweed flowering stalks during the evening. Eggs hatch within 9 days and larvae feed on stem tissue. Larvae enter diapause within the stem and remain for one to several winters before emerging as adults. Larval survival is dependent on the mutualism between Soapweed and Yucca Moths, as stalks without fruit wither and die resulting in almost complete mortality for Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth larvae. (Updated 2017/05/24)
Soapweed is naturally limited in Canada by its obligate relationship with the Yucca Moth, its habitat type, and its peripheral distribution and isolation from other populations in its range. Other non-anthropogenic threats include herbivory by wild ungulates and insects and extreme weather events like high winds or heavy rains. The primary sources of anthropogenic threats to the expansion of Soapweed into adjacent habitats include habitat alteration and degradation through agriculture, oil and gas development and off-road vehicle use. Soapweed is collected for the horticultural trade and for medicinal use (threat currently negligible). (Updated 2017/05/24)
The Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth is protected under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA). More information about SARA, including how it protects individual species, is available in the Species at Risk Act: A Guide.
Provincial and Territorial Protection
Status of Recovery Planning
Recovery Strategies :
Name Amended Recovery Strategy for the Soapweed (Yucca glauca) and Yucca Moth (Tegeticula yuccasella) and Recovery Strategy for the Non-pollinating Yucca Moth (Tegeticula corruptrix) and the Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth (Prodoxus quinquepunctellus) in Ca
Status Final posting on SAR registry
PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Most of the reports not yet available are status reports for species assessed by COSEWIC prior to May 2002. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk. In the meantime, they are available on request from the COSEWIC Secretariat.
11 record(s) found.
- COSEWIC Status Reports (2 record(s) found.)
- Response Statements (2 record(s) found.)
- Recovery Strategies (1 record(s) found.)
- Orders (2 record(s) found.)
- COSEWIC Annual Reports (2 record(s) found.)
- Consultation Documents (1 record(s) found.)
- Recovery Document Posting Plans (1 record(s) found.)
COSEWIC Status Reports
COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Yucca Moth Tegeticula yuccasella, Non-pollinating Yucca Moth Tegeticula corruptrix and the Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth Prodoxus quinquepunctellus in Canada (2013-12-24)Yucca Moths are small white moths with an 18-27.5 mm wingspan. They have specialized maxillary tentacles used to handle the pollen of Yucca spp., with which they engage in an obligate pollination-seed predation mutualism.
Response Statement - Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth (2013-12-18)The Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth is known from only two sites in Canada, one of which was discovered in 2011. This moth species is an obligate stem borer on the stalks of Soapweed. Larval survival is dependent on the mutualistic relationship between the Soapweed and its pollinator Yucca Moth. The flowers on non-pollinated Soapweed stalks whither faster than pollinated stalks, resulting in almost complete mortality of immature life stages of Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth. The loss of flowers or seeds as a result of ungulate herbivory is an ongoing threat, while in the long term Soapweed populations may be limited by the lack of fire and other disturbances that provide sites for the establishment of seedlings.
Response Statements - Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth (2006-11-29)This highly specialized moth exists in Canada as a single population that occurs in a very small, restricted area, isolated from the main range of the species in the United States. The moth is entirely dependent on the obligate mutualistic relationship between its host plant (Soapweed), and the plant’s pollinator (Yucca Moth), both of which are at a high level of risk. It is threatened by the high level of wild ungulate herbivory, which in some years greatly reduces recruitment of the moth, its host plant and the host plant pollinator, and by off-road vehicles that destroy the host plant.
Amended Recovery Strategy for the Soapweed (Yucca glauca) and Yucca Moth (Tegeticula yuccasella) and Recovery Strategy for the Non-pollinating Yucca Moth (Tegeticula corruptrix) and the Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth (Prodoxus quinquepunctellus) in Canada (2019-02-18)The Minister of Environment and Climate Change is the competent minister under SARA for the Soapweed, Yucca Moth, Non-pollinating Yucca Moth and the Five-spotted Bogus Yucca Moth and has prepared the federal component of this recovery strategy (Part 1), as per section 37 of SARA. To the extent possible, it has been prepared in cooperation with the Province of Alberta and Agri and Agri-Food Canada, as per section 39(1) of SARA. SARA section 44 allows the Minister to adopt all or part of an existing plan for the species if it meets the requirements under SARA for content (sub sections 41(1) or (2)). The Province of Alberta led the development of the attached recovery strategy for the Soapweed and the Yucca Moth (Part 2) in cooperation with Environment and Climate Change Canada.
COSEWIC Annual Reports
COSEWIC Annual Report - 2006 (2006-08-30)2006 Annual Report to the The Minister of the Environment and the Canadian Endangered Species Conservation Council (CESCC) from the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.
COSEWIC Annual Report – 2012-2013 (2013-09-24)Under Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA), the foremost function of COSEWIC is to “assess the status of each wildlife species considered by COSEWIC to be at risk and, as part of the assessment, identify existing and potential threats to the species”. COSEWIC held two Wildlife Species Assessment Meetings in this reporting year (October, 2012 to September 2013) from November 25 to November 30, 2012 and from April 28 to May 3, 2013. During the current reporting period, COSEWIC assessed the status or reviewed the classification of 73 wildlife species. The wildlife species assessment results for the 2012-2013 reporting period include the following: Extinct: 0 Extirpated: 2 Endangered: 28 Threatened: 19 Special Concern: 19 Data Deficient: 4 Not at Risk: 1 Total: 73 Of the 73 wildlife species examined, COSEWIC reviewed the classification of 50 species that had been previously assessed. The review of classification for 26 of those species resulted in a confirmation of the same status as the previous assessment.